MAHABHARATH WAR 1.8Million People died with 7 survivors in 1400BC-Prana Kishore


Gita is supposedly the advice given by Shri Krishna to  Arjuna  on the first  morning of the 18 day Mahabharata war on the Kurukshetra battleground.   The causes of the family feud and the consequent war lie in the events which occurred a couple of generations earlier and expose the fickleness as well as the greatness of man.   It goes to show how apparently normal events can have a far reaching consequences.  Readers may please note that what follows has been written from an historical standpoint and not from a mythological standpoint to which the pious are generally exposed.


The appropriate point to start this history would be the late 12th century BC when king Shantanu, 42nd in the lineage of the lunar dynasty of the Aryan kings (as given in the Bhagwat Purana), ruled Hastinapur (About 60 km NW of New Delhi, on the banks of  the Ganges). The roots of the Mahabharata war may be traced to his two marriages.

Shantanu’s first marriage   Once when Shantanu went hunting, he came across a beautiful woman and fell for her. She agreed to marry him on the condition that he would never question her deeds. He agreed. In the following years, she gave birth to seven children every one of which, as soon as it were born, she would take to the river and drown it. Shantanu became sad but could not question her because of the mutual agreement. However, when the next child was born he secretly followed her and stopped her from drowning the boy. She revealed that she was the River Ganga personified and had to drown the first seven children because of a curse. The eighth child was to have survived and was to be handed over to Shantanu but now that he had broken his promise she would leave him taking the son with her. Ganga left with the son but returned him to Shantanu when he grew to be a youth well versed in all branches of knowledge and in martial arts. The boy was named Devavrata and grew to be a brave warrior and a wise person, well versed in the code of righteous behaviour (i.e. Dharma). It was expected the he would succeed Shantanu, but events took a different turn. One may trace the root cause of the Mahabharata war to these events.

Shatanu’s second marriage Shantanu once came across a fisherman’s daughter named Satyavati and fell in love with her. Her father agreed to give her in marriage to Shantanu on the condition that it would be her son who shall succeed him on the throne. Shantanu refused but was depressed in spirit. When Devavrata noticed this and found the reason he coaxed his father into the marriage. In order that his father be able to keep the promise regarding the succession to the throne, Devavarata himself denounced his right to the throne and besides took a vow that he would remain a celibate and would not get married so as to eliminate any chance of successors being born to him. This vow was so severe that Devavrata was called by people as Bhishma or severely frightening. Even today a serious vow is called a Bhishma-pratidnya or vow of Bhishma. Thus Shantanu was married to Satyavati. In return Shantanu gave a boon to Devavrata that he would die only when he wished it so.

Pandu and Dhritarashtra Shantanu had two sons from Satyavati. The elder son died in a battle. The second son Vichtravirya was a weakling but Bhishma supported him having the welfare of Hastinapur at his heart. In order to get Vichitravirya married Bhishma invaded Kashi and won three daughters of the king of Kashi. One of them prayed that she was already in love with another prince and was let go. Vichitravirya was thus married to the two remaining princesses Ambika and Ambalika. Vichitravirya however died without a son and heir to the throne. By the custom of those days it was permissible to breed a son through the brother of the husband, and the heir would be considered as legal. Note that this process was aimed not for pleasure but only towards the goal of procreation. There was no living brother to Vichitravirya, but before her marriage to Shantanu, Satyavati had a son from the Rishi Parashara, grandson of the great Rishi Vashishtha. This son was the famous great Rishi Vyasa who edited the Vedas, wrote Puranas and after the Mahabharata war composed the book Jaya which is the precursor to the epic Mahabharata. Satyavati, in consultation with Bhishma, called upon Vyasa to beget children for the two wives of the late Vichitravirya in order to have a successor to the throne. Unfortunately the elder son Dhritarashtra was born blind while the second son was anaemic and was therefore named Pandu. At the request of a slave of the palace, Vyasa also begot a son from her. This was Vidura who later turned out to be a great learned sage and played a significant role in the affairs of the kingdom.


Because Dhritarashtra was blind, Bhishma who was a kind of regent, made Pandu ascend the throne. Pandu had two wives, Kunti, daughter of King Ugrasen of Yadava clan and Madri, the daughter of the king of Madra in Punjab. Kunti was thus the sister of Vasudeva, Shri Krishna’s father. Pandu had three sons from Kunti and two from Madri. Kunti’s sons were Yudhishtira (or Dharma), Arjuna (or Partha) and Bhima. Madri’s sons were named Nakul and Sahadeva.

Dhritarashtra was married to Gandhari the princess of Gandhar (now Kandahar in Afganistan). In deference to the blindness of her husband Gandhari throughout her life covered her eyes by tying cloth over them. They had hundred sons known as the Kauravas and a daughter. The eldest son was Duryodhana who was very ambitious and cunning. His second son was Duhshasana who was also like his elder brother. These brothers hated the Pandavas because they were better in character as well as in other qualities like bravery etc. and were liked by all.

Actually Pandu was not the real father of these sons. Legend goes that before her marriage, Kunti had served the great Rishi Durvasa who gave her a boon of six mantras which she could use whenever she wished for a child. (Pandu was anaemic and unable to bear children so Mahabharata seems to use this good ruse to legalise Kunti’s and Madri’s children as Pandu’s. But note that this system was socially accepted in those days and the Pandavas were never considered inferior in any way because of this. Also considering the qualities of the five sons there is no doubt that their real fathers were no ordinary persons.) Immediately after she received the boon Kunti, out of curiosity, tried one mantra while she was a virgin and prayed to the Sun God. He came in person and gave a son to Kunti. Kunti was frightened and secretly put the baby in a basket and left him afloat in the river. He was found by a charioteer and was named Karna also known as Radheya because his adopted mother’s name was Radha. When he grew up he joined the Kaurava group and was very close to Duryodhana. Karna played a major role in the Mahabharata war and led it after Bhishma retired from the war after getting seriously injured. Karna is considered as one of the greatest characters of the Epic Mahabharata, thrown by fate into the Kaurava camp in spite of being the eldest of the Pandavas and never wavering in his allegiance to Duryodhana even when the secret of his birth was revealed to him. He was as good as Arjuna in war and had to be killed by a trick arranged by Shri Krishna. Thus traditionally one speaks of only five Pandavas. According to the above legend Yudhishtira the eldest of the Pandavas was born from Yama the god of death, Arjuna from Indra the king of the gods and Bhima from Vayu the wind god. Yudhisthira was known for his truthfulness and morals while Bhima was very strong even as a child and became an expert in wielding the club or mace. Kunti passed on two mantras to Madri the other wife of Pandu. Her sons Nakul and Sahadeva were begot from the twin Ashwinikumars, the twin deities of medicine. Yudhisthira was known for his truthfulness and morals while Bhima was very strong even as a child and became an expert in wielding the club or mace.

Pandu’s death and Dhritarashtra’s enthronement Pandu died while he was in forest. Madri committed Sati by burning herself on the funeral pyre. Probably because Yudhishtira the eldest son of Pandu was too young, Bhishma enthroned Dhritarashtra even though he was blind.

After their father’s death the Pandavas along with Kunti returned to Hastinapur and stayed with their uncle Dhritarashtra. Both Kauravas and Pandavas studied together under the royal Guru Dronacharya, the martial arts, especially archery, the main weapon of those days as well as other branches of knowledge.

Kauravas’ enmity Pandavas and Kauravas studied Shastras and marshal arts, especially archery together under the royal Guru Dronacharya. The Kauravas always bore jealousy and animosity towards the Pandavas who were liked by all due to their excellent skills and personal qualities. Yudhisthira was known for his truthfulness and morals while Bhima was very strong even as a child and became an expert in wielding the club or mace. Arjuna was the best archer with unsurpassed skill with bow and arrow and was the most favourite student of Dronacharya. Duryodhana also was an expert with the mace. The Kauravas out of jealousy always tried to create trouble for the Pandavas and even tried to kill them by poisoning and by burning them, but Pandavas were saved by their well-wishers especially Vidura and Shri Krishna, who were aware of the vengeful nature of the Kauravas. The feud between the Pandavas and the Kauravas grew as the boys reached adulthood.

Pandavas marry Draupadi Kauravas, especially Duryodhana and Duhshasana once tried to poison Bhima but failed due to his strong constitution. Another time they plotted to burn them alive by inviting them to a house which they had especially built with inflammable materials. The Pandavas escaped but to create a false impression that they had died and thus avoid further attempts on their life, they had to travel around incognito, posing as Brahmin mendicants, hiding from the Kauravas lest they would be murdered. During this incognito stage they reached the kingdom of Panchala where a competition was held by the king Drupada in order choose a bridegroom for his daughter Draupadi or Panchali (also known as Krishnaa since she was dark complexioned). The competition consisted of hitting the eye of a revolving fish with an arrow while taking the aim through its reflection in water. While going around for alms the Pandavas reached the place of the competition. The difficult test was won by Arjuna. The Pandavas returned to their home with the princess Draupadi. Their mother, not knowing that Arjuna had won a princess, instructed them to share the gains equally among the five brothers. As they could not go against her command all five of them married Draupadi. (There are other examples of polyandry mentioned in the Puranas. But note that there are tribes in the northern hill regions of India where polyandry is still practised. Since social customs are well merged with religion it is difficult to change such practices.) Draupadi’s time was divided equally among the brothers and there does not seem to be any complaints. Shri Krishna was a cousin of Pandavas and always supported them. He was especially close to Arjuna. Draupadi considered Shri Krishna as her brother while Arjuna was married to Shri Krishna’s sister Subhadra for which again shri Krishna was responsible.

Pandavas get Indraprastha When Pandavas became older they asked for their share of the kingdom. Dhritarashtra who was heavily under the influence of his sons refused but finally he had to give in and gave them a small piece of kingdom nearby. Its capital was Indraprastha which is also now part of New Delhi. People were very happy in their kingdom.

Pandavas kingdom Lost by gambling The Kauravas, advised by their maternal uncle Shakuni, the king of Gandhar, made a plan by which Pandavas would lose their kingdom in a gambling bout since it was not possible to win against Pandavas in any battle. It was considered the duty of a Kshatriya not to refuse to a duel or a gambling game. Taking advantage of this custom, Duryodhana invited Yudhishtira for a gambling bout. They used loaded dice which the Pandavas did not know. Yudhishtira who was known for his righteousness and truthfulness lost all he had including the kingdom. Duryodhana then challenged him to continue to play by putting on bet the liberty of his brothers which also was lost. Thus the brave Pandavas became slaves to the Kauravas. Now that the Pandavas were slaves the Kauravas unfortunately pulled Draupadi (who was under menstruation at that time) into the court where the game was being played. Duhshasana even tried to undress and molest her. Unfortunately all this was happening under the eyes of Bhishma and the other elders who had to keep quiet for keeping the unity of the kingdom. The episodes created a big furore in the court and it was finally decided that Pandavas should be condoned from being slaves and instead they should be banished to forest for twelve years and after that for one more year they should remain incognito. If they were identified during the incognito period then they were again to go to forest for another twelve years. Pandavas had to accept this proposal and they left the kingdom with Draupadi.

Coming out of incognito period Twelve years passed during which Kauravas tried a lot to trouble and humiliate the Pandavas but every time they failed. During the thirteenth year they went to King Virat as servants under different guises. Draupadi also remained as servant in the palace. Kauravas tried to discover their whereabouts but could not succeed. But towards the end, Kauravas invaded Virat to take away his wealth of the cattle when Arjuna had to take part in the battle and defeat the Kauravas. Thus, Arjuna was discovered. However that day was also the end of their one year incognito period. They therefore immediately claimed their kingdom back.

But things were not so simple. They had completed one lunar year (354 days) but Kauravas insisted they were meaning solar year (365 days). (See notes at the end of Ch. 8) This dispute was not resolved and finally it was decided that only a full scale war would decide the question of inheritance. To give Kauravas a final chance Shri Krishna tried to mediate but the Kauravas were blind with arrogance and power and tried to even arrest Shri Krishna. War became inevitable. But this was not a sniper war of today. Both parties conferred regarding the date of the war as well as the rules. Among the rules was that the war was to start every day at sunrise and the warriors were to stop fighting at sunset. Thus the Mahabharata war is called a Dharmayuddha or a war fought according to the rules of Dharma or a code of conduct.

Decision of war Both parties sent calls to their relations and supporters and people came from as far away as Afganistan which had Aryan kingdoms as well as from the east and the south. The venue of the war was Kurukshetra not far from New Delhi. (You may find it on a map of India. ) Shri Krishna played an interesting role in the war. Both Duryodhana and Arjuna went to meet Shri Krishna for his assistance in the war. Both reached his palace early morning and waited for Shri Krishna to wake up. Proudly, Duryodhana sat near his head while Arjuna sat humbly at his feet. When Shri Krishna woke up he first saw Arjuna and asked what he wanted. Thus the discussion started. Shri Krishna said that he himself would support one side and lend his army to the other. He also said that he would not handle any arms during the war. Duryodhana opted for the army while Arjuna opted for Shri Krishna. Shri Krishna acted as Arjuna’s charioteer during the war and saved him from death many times. He was intelligent and shrewd and it is this shrewdness which mainly made Pandavas win the war. Bhishma. Dronacharya fought on Kauravas side as their duty but their heart was with Arjuna and Yudhishtir. However they did not become lax in their duties. The tales of the war and how Shri Krishna’s tricks saved Pandavas is interesting and legendary but that is a different topic.


On the first day of the war Arjuna asked Shri Krishna to steer the chariot to the centre of the battlefield so that he can have an overview of the armies. But Shri Krishna advised him that he was merely doing his duty. That advice in expanded form is Gita. On the morning of the first day of the war, both armies were facing each other. Before the war was to start, Arjuna asked Shri Krishna, his charioteer to take the chariot to the centre between the armies in order to have a look at the warriors gathered there, because it was necessary to know with whom he was going to fight. Shri Krishna did so and indicated to Arjuna his elders like his grand-uncle Bhishma, his guru Dronacharya and other kings.

When Arjuna saw among both the armies his elders, brothers, cousins, uncles, friends and relatives and even grand-children (Arjuna was 65 years old at the time of this war. Shri Krishna was 83, Dronacharya 85 and Bhishma was more than 100 years old; Vasudeo, father of Shri Krishna did not fight but was 140 years old. It appears that people lived long in those days). the reality of fighting his own kith and kin, especially his grand-uncle Bhishma and Guru Dronacharya faced him. He realised the genocide that was going to occur for the sake of winning the kingdom and in a despondent mood, overcome with grief and compassion Arjuna said to Shri Krishna, “By seeing all these friends and relatives gathered here for war, I am feeling un-nerved and my mouth has gone dry. I am feeling confused. I do not think we will gain by killing these friends and relatives. The persons for whose benefit we desire the kingdom are those who have come here to sacrifice their life and wealth. I can see that this war will destroy many family lineages and when I see the horror of this destruction, how can I ignore the sins of that destruction? Because such a destruction leads to the destruction of morals. I am wondering how we became ready to commit this sin in the first place!” So saying Arjuna kept down his bow and sat quietly.

This was a shock to Shri Krishna. He said to Arjuna, “How did these thoughts of compassion, unbecoming to an Aryan, came into your mind in this time of crises? Shed this weakness and get ready for the war.”

But Arjuna did not move. He said, “How can I strike persons like Bhishma and Dronacharya whom I should actually be worship? The blood will be on my hands. I am really confused and am not able to think what is right and what is wrong. Consider me your disciple and advise me what is proper.” And then Arjuna fell silent. Shri Krishna then gave him the advice on duties of a person towards himself, the society and God. This advice presented as a dialogue between Arjuna and Shri Krishna is the Gita. It convinced Arjuna that he has to fight the war more as his dharma (righteous conduct and duty) as a Kshatriya (warrior caste) rather than for the gains of the kingdom. Thus convinced, he picked up his bow and arrows and got up to fight the war.

Portrayal Shri Krishna as Supreme God As readers would have concluded from the Prologue, Gita is not a factual report of the dialogue between Arjuna and Shri Krishna, if it really occurred at all. It is a later addition by Sauti to the Mahabharata, of which Gita is a part. It was written some centuries after Shri Krishna was deified and considered as an avatar of Lord Vishnu thus enabling Sauti to present Shri Krishna as the Supreme God. Having assigned the role of an avatar to Shri Krishna, he is mentioned in Gita (and Dnyaneshwari) as Bhagwan (God). In fact much of the advice to Arjuna rendered by Shri Krishna is in this role of Bhagwan which Arjuna also recognises. Thus Gita is usually mentioned as Bhagvadgita or Gita told by Bhagwan.

Both Shri Krishna and Arjuna are mentioned by various other names in the Bhagvadgita, but we shall maintain the names Shri Krishna and Arjuna in this translation for the sake of convenience.

Dhritarashtra, being blind could not participate in the war. Mahabharata (Sauti’s addition) tells us that he requested Shri Krishna that he should be able to learn about the events of the war. Shri Krishna granted divine sight to Dhritarashtra’s charioteer Sanjaya so that he could see the events of the war and describe them to Dhritarashtra. Thus Dhritarashtra and Sanjaya also knew the contents of Gita almost at the same time as Arjuna. But blinded by love for his sons it had no effect on Dhritarashtra. What he was interested in was only whether his sons were winning or not.

Life struggle compared with Kurukshetra war Mr Yardi has commented on this situation in very beautifully and analytically comparing the war to our struggles in life in the following words (Bhagvadgita as a Synthesis, M.R.Yardi, 1991. See Prologue): “Usually the author (meaning Sauti) gives an indication of the purport of the text in the very first sentence. Gita calls Kurukshetra the dharmakshetra implying thereby that the Pandavas are waging a righteous war against the Kauravas. The human mind vacillates between two tendencies, the divine and the demoniacal, each struggling for the supremacy over the other. Life is therefore the battleground for the settlement of great moral issues. This is true not only for the individual but also for the society as a whole and the human race. If man follows the path of dharma in a disinterested spirit, he grows in spiritual stature. But if he follows the path of adharma (i.e. lack of dharma), he sinks into the very depths of degradation. The blind king stands for a man who is blinded by self-love and affection for his wife and family, and who, instead of following the path of duty, spends his life-time in the mad pursuit of wealth, power and domination. This attitude naturally leads to conflict between individuals and nations. The Gita tells us how to resolve such conflicts and to attain salvation from the turmoil of life even while living.”

Epilogue to the Mahabharata war The war lasted for eighteen days. Only survivors were the Pandavas, Dronacharya’s son Ashwathama, Shri Krishna and a few others. Kauravas and their allies were completely decimated. It was one of the greatest genocide in history were young strong blood vanished. All Pandava’s sons died so there was no heir to the hard won kingdom. Ashwathama as a revenge on behalf of the Kauravas tried to kill the foetus of Abhimanyu’s child (Arjuna’s grand child) but Shri Krishna by his yogic powers made it survive. Thus Pandavas had a heir after all. His name was Parikshit. Bhishma who had a boon of dying by his own will waited in injured condition until Uttarayana, the northward travel of the sun started. (Currently it starts on December 21. See notes under Ch 8.)

Yudhishtir became the king and reigned for 36 years. Just towards the end of his reign, Shri Krishna, while sitting under a tree in a forest (near Somnath in Gujarat state, Western part of India), was shot by an arrow in the leg by a hunter who mistakenly thought he was shooting a deer. Thus Shri Krishna died after an illustrious career at the age of about 118 years. He was cremated at Prabhas on the bank of the river Patan nearby. Shri Krishna was the king of the Yadava clan and his kingdom was Dwaraka, an isle off the west coast of Gujarat. Soon after his death the Yadavas fought among themselves and killed each other. Dwaraka was swallowed by sea. When the news of Shri Krishna’s death came the Pandavas felt like orphans. Arjuna was given the task of escorting the widows of the Yadavas to Hastinapur but while Arjuna was escorting them the tribes on the way attacked him and took the women away. Arjuna had no power left as he was now old. He returned to Hastinapur shamefaced and very soon all the brothers went to the forest for passing their last days as was the custom in those days. Parikshit succeeded the throne.

Hindu tradition believes that Kaliyoga began with the death of Shri Krishna. After putting together various types of scientific, historical and other information Mr. Yardi concludes the date of Mahabharata war as 1011 BC give or take 50 years and in no case earlier than 1136 BC. This agrees fairly well with the broad estimate of approximately 1400 BC by the historians but differs greatly from the orthodox Hindu tradition which instead of 975 BC puts the start of the Kaliyuga at 3101BC said to be based on a single unsubstantiated statement of the famous astronomer-mathematician-philosopher Aryabhat.

Day by day account of the war

kauravas had 1.1 million soldiers Pandavas had 0.7 million soldiers.

At end of the war all but Krishna draupathi and pandavas survived.

All the kauravas got killed.

Family tree


The main Hindu Gods are 33 in number and NOT 330 million

There are a pantheon of Hindu Gods and the common belief is that they number 33 crores which equals 330 million. Looks like a huge number to me and I have heard a lot of people ( Hindus as well as non Hindus ) ridiculing the number. If you consider the time when the statement was made (probably at least a few thousand years back), the number of Gods will be more than the number of people. Seems a little out of proportion. There are a lot of such mis-interpretations which has given Hinduism a bad name. The term is “koti” which can mean crores ( 10 million ) but can also mean “class” or “category”. A popular but unfounded belief has been spread that Hindus have 33 crore (33,00,00,000) gods. It is a misunderstanding of the Vedic concept of the State, and hence a misinterpretation of the word koti. Thirty-three divinities are mentioned in the Yajur-veda, Atharva-… Tibetan masters who translated Sanskrit texts into Tibetan, rendered koti by rnam which means ‘class, kind, category’. The thirty-three supreme deities are specified

Thus the original saying meant 33 primary deities and NOT 330 million deities

From the wiki about 33 main Gods

The Thirty-three gods is a pantheon of Hindu deities, some of Vedic origin and some developed later. It generally includes a set of 31 deities consisting of 12 Ādityas, 11 Rudras, and 8 Vasus; the identity of the other two deities that fill out the 33 varies, though their roles are generally a creator deity, presiding over procreation and protector of life and the 33rd is an all powerful supreme ruler.

The 31 are:

  • Twelve Ādityas (personified deities) – Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Varuṇa, Dakṣa, Aṃśa, Tvāṣṭṛ, Pūṣan, Vivasvat, Savitṛ, Śakra, Viṣṇu. This list sometimes varies in particulars.
  • Eleven Rudras, consisting of:
    • Five abstractions – Ānanda “bliss”, Vijñāna “knowledge”, Manas “thought”, Prāṇa “breath” or “life”, Vāc “speech”,
    • Five names of ŚivaĪśāna “ruler”, Tatpuruṣa “that person”, Aghora “not terrible”, Vāmadeva “pleasant god”, Sadyojāta “born at once”
    • Ātmā “self”
  • Eight Vasus (deities of material elements) – Pṛthivī “Earth”, Agni “Fire”, Antarikṣa “Atmosphere”, Vāyu “Wind”, Dyauṣ “Sky”, Sūrya “Sun”, Nakṣatra “Stars”, Soma “Moon”

Other sources similar to the Vedas include the two Aśvins (or Nāsatyas), twin solar deities.

  • Indra also called Śakra, lord of the gods, is the First of the 33 followed by Agni
  • Prajāpati “Master of creatures”, a creator deity.

The generic title, though not the particular names of the deities, was borrowed in Buddhist sources as a name for the heaven “of the Thirty-three gods” (Trāyastriṃśa).

Age of Universe and Brahma as calculated in Vedas-Prana Kishore

Age of Universe and Brahma as calculated in Vedas

Vedas say that before the creation of the universe Lord Vishnu was sleeping in the ocean of all causes.His bed is a giant serpent with thousands of cobra like hoods. While Vishnu is asleep, a lotus sprouts of his navel (note that navel is symbolized as the root of creation!).

Inside this lotus, Brahma is born.

By the way, in the trinity of Creator, Maintainer and Destroyer as mentioned in the Vedas, Lord Vishnu is the maintainer. Brahma is the creator and Shiva the destroyer.
And each Brahma has a life span of one kalpa at the end of which even he ceases to exist giving way to his successor- a new Brahma. The present kalpa is seventh in order as six kalpas have already passed.

The name of the Brahma of first Kalpa – Virinchi.
The name of the Brahma of second Kalpa – Padmabhu.
The name of the Brahma of third Kalpa – Swayambhu.
The name of the Brahma of fourth Kalpa – Parmeshthi.
The name of the Brahma of fifth Kalpa – Surajyeshtha
The name of the Brahma of sixth Kalpa – Hemagarbha.
The name of the Brahma of seventh Kalpa – Shatanand.

While Vishnu is asleep, a lotus sprouts of his navel (note that navel is symbolized as the root of creation!). Inside this lotus, Brahma is born. Brahma creates the universe which we all live in.Brahma himself may be the universe as well, which is why the vedic texts say Brahmanda meaning Universe. I speculate here that so this universe created from the navel (which is a single point) may well be referring to the universe created out of big-bang! Which is why it is described as lotus blooms out of the navel, much like our big bang universe.Now this universe is not a permanent universe, it is temporary, Brahma lives for 100 years say the Vedas and then dies and then a new universe is born. So as per Vedas our universe lives for 100 years.For now, Brahma represents our universe which has birth and death, a big bang and a big crunch, from a navel singularity. Vishnu represents the eternity that lies beyond our universe which has no birth or death and that which is eternal!Vedas say that thousands of Brahmas have passed away! In other words, this is not the first time universe has been created.Let us come back to the time measurements now. Brahma lives for hundred years say Vedas and we are in the first day of the 51st year of the Brahma
.A Year of Brahma :
Each year of Brahma has 360 days and we’re in the first day of the 51st year of our current Brahma.
Vedas say that during the day Brahma is busy in creation of life and during the night all life he created is absorbed back into him! So we will be there only for this day of Brahma, which is the first day of his 51st year. And, what does this day of Brahma means?

A day of Brahma: A kalpa
Each Kalpa(day) will have have 28 Manvantaras (14 days and 14 nights).
Creation happens only during these 14 Udaya Kalpas and he rests during 14 Kshaya Kalpas (his nights).
Right now we’re going through Sweta Varaha Kalpa and Vaivasvata Manvantara.
Earlier to that 6 Manvantaras, ruled by 6 manus have passed.

As per vedas 1 Manvantara = 71 Mahayugas.
1 Mahayuga = 1 Sat(Krita) Yuga(40%) + 1 Treta Yuga(30%) + 1 Dwapara Yuga(20%) + 1 Kali Yuga(10%).
Now, Kali Yuga is defined to last for 432,000 solar years.
Based on that, Dwapara Yuga lasted for 864,000 years, Treta Yuga lasted for 1,296,000 years, Sat Yuga lasted for 1,728,000 years.
Total Maha Yuga span now is : 4,320,000 years.
So each Manvantara = 4,320,000 x 71 = 306,720,000 years.
6 Manvantaras have passed so far, so 6 x 306,720,000 = 1,840,320,000 years have passed in past manvantaras.

So far 27 Mahayugas have passed in present(7th) Vaivasvata Manvantara.
27 x 4,320,000 = 116,640,000 years.
In 28th Mahayuga (running presently), 1 Krita (Sat) Yuga, 1 Treta Yuga, 1 Dwapara Yuga and Kaliyuga’s 5112 years have passed so far.

So add 1,840,320,000 + 116,640,000 + 1,728,000 + 1,296,000 + 864,000 + 5112 = 1,960,853,112 years.
These many years have passed in present year (51st) of Brahma.

Before that 50 years have passed for him.
That is : 50 x 360(days/kalpas) x 28 (Manvantaras) x 71 (Mahayugas) x 4,320,000 (each maha yuga span years) = 154,586,880,000,000 years.
Add 1,960,853,112 years to it and its about 155 Billion years.

Modern day Scientists have discovered that our present universe is approximately 155 billion years !!!!!!!!!

Adi Sankaracharya’s -Soundarya Lahari-Prana Kishore

Adi Sankaracharya’s -Soundarya Lahari-Prana Kishore

(0ne page version to know the concept)

The Soundarya Lahari meaning “Waves Of Beauty” is a famous literary work in Sanskrit believed to be written by sage Pushpadanta and Adi Shankara. Some believe the first part “Ananda Lahari” was etched on mount Meru by Ganesha himself (or by Pushpadanta). Sage Goudapada, the teacher of Shankar’s teacher Govinda Bhagavadpada, memorised the writings of Pushpadanta which was carried down to Adi Shankara. Its hundred and three shlokas (verses) eulogize the beauty, grace and munificence of GoddessParvati / Dakshayani, consort of Shiva.


Adi Shankara with disciples, drawing byRaja Ravivarma, 1904

The Sri Chakra, frequently called the Sri Yantra.

Soundarya Lahari has 100 Slokas or verses

Verses 1-41 is called Ananda Lahari-
(waves of Happiness )are the original work of Lord Shiva, shedding great light on the ancient rituals of 
TantraYantra and various powerful Mantras. Describes the mystical experience of the union of Shiva and Shakti and related phenomena. In fact, it opens with the assertion that Only when Shiva is united with Shakti does he have the power to create.

Verses 42 -100 are called Soundarya Lahari
–( Waves of Beauty )composed by Adi Shankara himself, which mainly focuses on the appearance of the Goddess.
This stanza till the end describes the great mother Shakthi from head to foot.These are supposed to be composed by the Adhi Sankara himself.



How can we use Soundarya Lahari in our life ? Its also a Q and A on life

The Soundarya Lahari is not only a poem. It is a tantra textbook, giving instructions on Puja and offerings, many yantras, almost one to each shloka; describes tantric ways of performing devotion connected to each specific shloka; and details the results ensuing therefrom.

History behind Soundarya Lahiri


once Adi Shankara visited Kailash to worship Shiva and Parvathi. There, the Lord gave him a manuscript containing 100 verses which described the many facets of the Goddess, as a gift to him. While Shankara was returning after visiting Kailash, Nandi stopped him on the way. He snatched the manuscript from him, tore it into two, took one part and gave the other to Shankara. Shankara, desolate, ran to Shiva and narrated the incident to him. Shiva, smiling, commanded him to retain the 41 verses with him as the initial part of the 100 verses and then, write an extra 59 verses in praise of the Goddess himself. Thus, verses 1 – 41 are the original work of Lord Shiva, shedding great light on the ancient rituals of TantraYantra and various powerful Mantras. The remaining verses, i.e. 42-100 are composed by Adi Shankara himself, which mainly focuses on the appearance of the Goddess

Adi Sankaracharya’s Shivananda Lahari-Understanding God-Prana Kishore

Adi Sankaracharya’s Shivananda Lahari


[This is one of the greatest poetic prayer couched in an undercurrent of practical philosophy by Sri Adi Sankara Bhagawatpada. Unlike Soundrya Lahari, this stotra does not seem to have tantric implication. It is more simpler and enriched with several alankaras. Any one reading this and understanding it would get peace, steadfast mind and knowledge of God and Philosophy.]

Prayer to the teacher

Imkara hrimkara rahasya yuktha
Srimkara gudartha Maha vibhoothya
Om kara marma prathi paadinibhyam,
Namo nama Sri Guru Padukabyam

I bow before the holy footwear of my teacher,
Who taught me the meaning of “OM”,
Which is the inner meaning of the sound “Srim”,
Being a holy combination of the sounds “Im” and “Hrim”.

Shivananda Lahari

Kalabhyam choodalankrutha sasi kalabhyam nija thapa
Phalabhyam bhaktheshu prakatitha phalabhyam bhavathu me
Shivabham sthoka thri bhuvana shivabhyam hridhi punar
Bhavaabhyam ananda sphura dhanubhavabhyam natheeriyam

Let my salutations be dedicated ,
To those who are dedicated to art,,
To them who wear the moon in their head,
To them who are the personification of mutual penance,
To them who teach devotees about the results of penance,
To them who grant only good to the three worlds,
To them whose every memory becomes newer and newer,
To them who are supremely happy due to their great knowledge,
And to the result of mystic union of Shiva and Shakthi.

Galanthi shambho twacharitha saritha khilbhisharajo
Dganthi dho kulya saranishu pathanthi vijayatham
Dhisanthi samsara bhramana parthapopa samanam,
Vasanthi machedho hrid bhavathi Shivananda Lahari.

Oh Lord Shambu who grants us happiness,
Let these waves of ecstasy Of Lord Shiva,
Flowing from the holy history of yours,
Calming the dusts of sin for ever,
Rushing from the canals of wisdom,
Falling in to the whirl pool of life,
Dousing the fires of sorrow,
Living in my hearts as senses,
Be always victorious.

Vrayi vedhyam tripura hara madhyam thrinayanam,
Jata bharodharam chala dhoora gaharam mriga dharma
Mahadevam devam mayi sadhata bhavam pasu pathim,
Chidalambam sambham shiva mathi vidambam hridhi bhaje

I pray with all my heart,
Him who is known by the three Vedas,
Him who is pleasant to the mind,
Him who destroyed the three cities,
Him who is first among every thing,
Him who has all seeing three eyes,
Him who carries the weight of matted lock,
With eminence great,
Him who wears the moving snake as necklace,
Him who holds the jumping deer in his hand,
Him who is greatest among devas,
Him who shines with glitter,
Him who has mercy on me,
Him who is the lord of all beings,
Him who is the only support to holy wisdom,
Him who is always with my Goddess,
And Him who is a great entertainer.

Sahasram varthanthe jagathi vibhutha kshudra phalada
Na manye swapne vaa thadanusaranam that krutha phalam
Hari brahmadeenamapi nikata bhaja masulabham
Chiram yache shambho shiva thava padombhoja bhajanam

Thousands of Gods abound,
Offering trifling gifts to them who pray,
And never even in my dreams would I pray.
Or request gifts from them.
To Shiva who is close to Vishnu, Brahma and other Gods,
But who is difficult for them to near,
I would beseech and beg always,
For his lotus like feet.

Smruthou shasthre vaidhye shakuna kavitha gana phanithou
Puranee manthre vaa sthuthi natana hasyeshwa chatura
Kadham ragman preethirbhavathi mayi koo aham pasu pathe
Pasum maam sarvagna pradhitha kripaya palaya vibho

Ignoramus I am in the science of law,
In the science of life,
In the art of medicine,
In interpretation of events,
In the art of poems and song,
In the difficult tomes of arty grammer,
In the holy books of yore,
In the psalms of Vedas.
In singing about your great deeds,
In the art of dance and in art of comedy,
And so how can I get favour of Kings?
Oh Lord of all beings,
Oh all knowing one,
Of most famous one,
And Oh , all pervading one,
Tell me who am I?
And be pleased to protect me ,
Showering on me your sea of mercy.

Ghato vaa mrithir pando apyaraunubhi cha dhoomogni rachala
Pato vaa thanthurva pariharathi kim ghorasamanam
Vridha kantakshebham vahasi tharasa tharka vachasa
Padhambhojam shmbhor bhaja parama soukhyam vrijasudhi.

This is the pot, no, this is only mud,
This is the earth, no , it is only atom,
This is the smoke, no, it is only fire,
This is the cloth, no , it is only the thread,
Can all this debate ever cure the cruel God of death?
Vainly you give pain to your throat,
By these torrent of words,
Instead worship the lotus like feet of Shambu,
Oh , intelligent one, and attain supreme happiness.

Manasthe padhabjhe nivasathu vacha sthothra phanithou
Karou chabhyarchyam sruthirapi kadha karnana vidhou
Thava dhyane budhir nayana yugalam moorthi vibhave
Para grandhan kairvaa paramashiva janee para matha

Let the mind dwell on your two lotus like feet,
Let my words dwell on your praise,
Let my two hands dwell on your worship,
Let my ears dwell on hearing your holy stories,
Let my mind dwell meditating on you,
Let my two eyes dwell on your beauty,
And after this I do not find any use,
Of other great books to me, Oh supreme God?

Yadha bhuddhi ssakthou rajatha mithi kachasamani mani
Rjale paishte ksheeram bhavathi mrigthrishnasu sallam
Thadha deva branthya bhajathi bhavadanyam jada jano
Maha devesam twam manasi cha na mathwa pasupathe.

Similar to the intellect calling,
The shell as silver,
The stones of glass as precious gems,
Water mixed with flour as milk,
The mirage as water,
Oh God of all beings,
The foolish ones worship,
Other gods than you,
Without thinking of you,
Who is the greatest God of all.

Gabheeram kaasare vimsathi vijane ghora vapine,
Vishale shaile cha brahmathi kusumartha jada mathi
Samarpaikam chetha sarasijamumanatha bhavathe,
Sukhenawasthathum jana iha na janathi kimaho.

Searches and hunts the dim witted one,
In the deep dark lake,
In the lonely dangerous forest,
And in the broad high mountains
For a flower to worship thee.
It is a wonder,
That these people do not know,
To offer to you the single lotus,
From the lake of ones own mind,
Oh God who is the consort of Uma,
And be happy at ones own place.

Narathwam devasthvam naga vana mrugathwam masakhatha,
Pasuthwam keetathwam bhavathu vihagathwadi janananam
Sada twadpadabja smarana paramananda lahari.
Vihaarasaktham che dhugdhaya miha kim thena vapusha.

Be it in a human form,
Be it in the form of Gods,
Be it in the form of animal,
That wanders the forests and hills,
Be it in the form of mosquito,
Be it in the form of a domestic animal,
Be it in the form of a worm,
Be it in the form of flying birds,
Or be it in any form whatsoever,
If always the mind is engaged in play,
Of meditation in thine lotus like feet,
Which are the waves of supreme bliss,
Then what does it matter,
Whatever body we have.

Vaturva gehee va yathirapi jati va thadinari,
Naro vaa ya kaschid bhavathu bhava kim thena bhavathi
Yadeeyam hrith padmam bhavad adeenam pasu pathe,
Thadeeya stwam shambho bhavasi bhava bhaaram cha vahasi

Be it a celibate seeker of truth,
Be it a man of the family,
Be it a shaven headed seeker of truth,
Be it the matted haired householder in the forest,
Or be it one who is none of these,
Hey, Lord of all beings,
If his lotus heart is in your custody, Shambho,
You would wholly become his,
And help him to lift,
This heavy burden of life.

Guhayam gehe va bahiapi vane va adri shikaram,.
Jale va vahni va vasathu vasathe kim vada phalam,
Sada yasyai va antha karana mapi sambho thava pade
Sthitham chedyogosau sa cha parama yogi sa cha sukhi.

Be it in a cave, Be it in house,
Be it outside, Be it in a forest,
Be it in the top of a mountain,
Be it in water, Be it in fire,
Please tell, What does it matter,
Where he lives?
Always, if his inner mind,
Rests on the feet of Shambhu,
It is Yoga and He is the greatest Yogi
And he will be happy forever..

Asare samsare nija bhajana dhoore jada dhiya.
Bramantham mamandham parama kripaya pathu muchitham
Madanya ko dheena sthava kripana rakshaathi nipuna,
Sthvadanya ko va me trijagathi saranya pasu pathe.

In this useless worldly life,
Which is unfit for real meditation,
I the blind and foolish one am always on the move,
And it is only right for you to protect me.
Hey Lord of all beings,
Who in this world is poorer,
Than me to show your mercy?
And which protector is there for me,
In all these three worlds,
Than you, who is an ace in protection of the poor?

Prabhu sthvam dheenanam khalu parama bhandhu pasu pathe,
Pramukhyoham thesha mapi kimutha bhanduthva manoyo
Twayaiwa kshanthawyo sisava mdhaparadascha sakala
Prayathnath karthavyam madavana miyam bhandhu sarani.

Lord and the only close relation, of the poor,
You are, Oh Lord of all beings,
And what more needs there to tell about the relation between us
When I am the poorest among the poor.
You have to pardon all my sins,
And my protection is to be done by your effort,
For it is the only way between those who are related..

Upeksha no cheth kinna harasi bhavadh dhyana vimukham
Dhurasa booyishtam vidhi lipi masaktho yadi bhavath,
Shira sthadvai dhathram na nakhalu savrutham pasu pathe,
Kadam vaa niryathnam kara nakha mukhe naiva lulitham.

Indifferent you are my Lord,
For no effort did you put to wipe out,
The letters of fate written on my head,
Which makes me,
Incapable of meditation on you,
And filled with evil desires to the rim,
Oh Lord, If you claim you cannot change these letters,
How come you crushed the head of the creator,
Which is very stable and can never be plucked,
By the mere tip of your nails?

Virinchi dheergayushur bhavathu bhavatha that para sira
Schathushkam samrakshyam sa khalu bhuvi dhainyam likhitavan,
Vichara ko vaa maam vishdha kripaya paathi shivaa me,
Kataksha vyaapara swayamapi na dheenavaan para.

Long live Brahma the creator.
Let his four remaining heads,
Be under your charge for protection.
For was he not the one,
Who wrote poverty on my head?
Is there any need to worry about this?..
Oh , Lord who is crystal clear,
And Lord who is all that is good,
Your act of glancing which thirsts,
At protecting the poor,
Also tenderly protects me.

Phaladha punyanam mayi karunaya vaa twayi vibho,
Prasannepi swamin bhava damala padabja yugalam,
Kadham pasyeyam maam sthagayathi namarasambrama jusham
Nirlepanam sreni nija kanaka manikya makutai.

He who is omnipresent,
As of result of deeds which are good,
Or as a result of your mercy on me,
Oh Lord, You have appeared before me,
But how can I see your pure holy feet,
For they are not visible to me,
Because of the rubies studded crowns,
Of the crowds of Devas,
Who are intent on bowing and worshipping thine feet?

Twameko lokanam parama phalado divya padavim,
Vahantha stwanmulam punarapi bajanthe hari mukha,
Kiyadwa dhakshinyai twa shiva madhasaa cha kiyathi,
Kadha vaa mad raksham vahasi karunaa pooritha drisha.

You alone grant great blessings and holy status,
To the common people of the world,
But carrying the holy position,
Granted by thy kindness great,
Vishnu and others pray you always,
For getting more and more such positions great .
Your grace my Lord is immeasurable
And my desire too is immeasurable,
And so when are you taking up the job,
Of protecting me by your merciful glance?

Dhurasaa bhooyishte dhuradhipa gruhadwara ghatake,
Dhooranthe samsare dhuritha nilaye dhukka janake,
Madayasam kim na vyapanayathi kasyopa krithaye,
Vadeyam preethischeth tawa krithartha khalu vayam.

I am caught in the whirlpool of life,
Filled with desires that are evil,
Taking one to the door of evil masters,
That which always end in evil,
That which is store house of sins,
And that which always leads to sorrow.
Are you not giving solace from my mire of sorrow,
So that the letters written by Brahma are true,
Ne pleased to tell, my Lord.
If this is your grace and affection, Oh Lord,
We indeed are more than fulfilled.

Sadaa mohatavyam charathi yuvatheenam kucha girou,
Nata thyasha sakhasvatathi jhatithi swairamabhitha
Kapaalin bhiksho me hridaya kapi matyantha chapalam,
Dridam bhakthya bhaddha shiva bhavad dheenam kuru vibho.

Oh Lord Shiva, who is every where,
Wanders my mind always in the forest of evil desires,
It dances ,always on the mountain of breasts of young maids,
And it wanders at its will on all four directions,
From the branches to branches of desires,
Oh Lord who bears the skull for begging,
Be pleased to take under your control,
My mind that like a monkey,
Wanders without control in all directions,
And tie it with the rope of your affection.

Dhruthui sthambha daram drida guna nibhaddham sagamanam,
Vichitram padmadyam prathi divasa sanmarga gaditham,
Smarare macchetha sphuta patas kutim prapya vishuddham,
Jaya swamin shakthya saha shiva ganai samsevitha vibho.

Oh killer of the god of love,
With courage as central pillars,
Tied by the ropes of determination,
This pretty ,lotus shaped,
Mobile crystal clean white tent house of my mind,
Which is built daily anew,
In the good spotless path,
May please be occupied by you with Shakthi,
Oh All pervading one who is served by your Ganas,
And oh , Lord, may you be victorious.

Pralobhadyai rarthaharana para thanthro dhani gruhe,
Pravesadhya kthassan bramathi bahudha thaskarapathe,
Imam chetaschoram katha miha sahe sankara vibho,
Thavadeenam kruthva mayi niraparadhe kuru krupam.

Filled with avarice and jealousy,
Intent on stealing other’s wealth,
Trying to enter the houses of the rich,
This my mind in many ways is wandering,
Oh lord of all thieves.
How will I ever tolerate,
This mind which is a thief,
Sankara .who is every where?
So take it under your control,
And show mercy on this innocent one.

Karomi twapoojam sapadhi sukhadho me bhava vibho,
Vidhitwam Vishnutwam dhisasi khalu tasya phalamithi,
Punascha twam dhivi bhuvi vahan pakshi mrugatha
Madrushtwa tat khedam kada miha sahe Sankara Vibho.

Perform of I your worship,
And you appear before me soon,
And you become granter all pleasures to me ,
Oh Lord who is everywhere.
But if you grant the position of creator,
Or the position of Lord Vishnu instead,
As a reward for my worship,
Then I would have to become a bird and fly in the sky,
Or Become an animal and dig deep in the earth,
To see you again my Lord.
How can I bear this sorrow of not seeing you,
Oh Lord Sankara who is everywhere.

Kadha vaa kailase kanaka mani soudhe saha ganai,
Rvasan Shamboragre sphuta ghatitha moordhajali phuta
Vibho sambha swamin paramashiva paheethi nigadhana
Vidhaathrunam kalpan kshanamiva vineshyami sukhada,

When would I live in Mount Kailas,
Along with your attendants,
In the stone studded golden mansion of yours,
Oh God who is the giver of happiness
With hands raised and clasped,
In deference to you,
Oh Lord, who is every where,
Oh Lord Who is with Goddess,
Oh God who is the master,
Oh God who is above all,
Oh God who is good,
And chant with pleasure.
“Oh God save me”,
And spend the time,
As if the creators Kalpa[1] is a second.

Sthavai rbrahmadeenam jaya jaya vachobhi niryaminam,
Gananam kelibhir mada kala maksobhya kakudhi,
Sthitham neelagreevam trinayana mumamslishta vapusham,
Kadha twam pasyeyam kara drutha kkhanda prasum.

When will I see Him,
Who is praised by Brhama and other Gods,
Who is surrounded by ascetics chanting “Victory, Victory”,
Who is crowded by the jesting and playing attendants,
Who Sits on the hump of the fat rutting bull,
Who has blue neck and three eyes,
Who is embraced by his consort Uma,
And who has the deer and hatchet in his hand.

Kadha vaa drushtva gireesha thava bhavayangri yugalam,
Griheethva hasthabhyam shirasi nayane vakshasi vahan,
Samaslishya graya sphuta jalaja gandhan parimala,
Nalabhyam brhmadourmudha manu bavishyami hrudhaye.

When will I see thine holy pair of feet,
Oh king of the mountains,
And be able to hold it ,carry it on the head, eyes and chest,
Embrace it, smell the scent of lotus flowers from it,
And attain rapturous ecstacy,
Which even Brahma and others do not get.

Karasthe hemadrou Gireesha nikatasthe dhana pathou,
Gruhasthe sarvabujamara surabhi chinthamanir gane,
Shirasthe sheetamsau charana yugalsthe akhila shubha,
Kamartha dasyoham bhavathu bhavadarthe mama mana.

In your hands is the Golden mountain,
Near you is the Lord of Riches,
In your house is the wish giving tree,
The Cow which grants everything,
The precious stone fulfilling ,
Any wish that enters your mind,
And such many others,
On your head is the moon with cool rays,
And all the good in the world is always on your feet,
And so what can slave offer you my Lord,
Except my mind which can be given as the offering.

Saaroopyam thava poojana shiva maha devethi samkeerthane,
Saameepyam shiva bhakthi dhurya janatha sangathya sambhashane,
Saalokyam cha characharathmaka thanu dyane bhavani pathe,
Sayujyam mama siddha mathra bhavathi swamin kridharthosysmaham.

The Mukthi of my becoming you is in thine worship,
The Mukthi of my coming near you is in singing,
About you and calling you “Hey , Shiva” and “Hey Madhava”
The Mukthi of living with you is in sweet conversation,
With thine devotees , who in their mind live with you,
The Mukthi of forever mixing with you is in thinking,
For ever of your moving and stable form which is the universe,
And so I get all these in this birth itself,
Oh God who is the consort of Bhavani,
I am thankful to you for all these.

Twat padambuja marchayami paramam twam chintayamyaham
Twameesam saranam vrijami vachasa twameva yache Vibho,
Veeksham me disa chakshusheem sakarunam divyai schiram prarthitham
Shambho loka guro maddeya manasa soukyopadesam kuru.

I offer devotions to thine lotus like feet,
I meditate on thee who is the greatest,
I seek thy refuge, Oh my Lord,
And by my words I beg from you, Oh Vibhu,
To bless me with the merciful divine sight,
Which is always sought by the Gods,
Oh teacher of the universe,
Teach me the way of the lesson happy living.

VasthroDhutrutha Vidhou sahasrakaratha pushparchane Vishnutha,
Gandhe gandha vahatmathaanna pachane bahirmukadyakshatha,
Pathre kanchagarbhatasthi mayi Chedbalendu chudamane,
Sushrusham kara vani the pasupathe swamin triloki guro

Like Sun I do not have,
Thousand rayed hands to dress your holy icon,
Like Vishnu I do not have ability ,
To worship thee who is every where,
Like God of Wind ,I don’t have ability,
To spread incense of sandal and the like,
And serve you in the most better way,
Like Indra who presides over Fire, I don’t have the ability,
To cook and offer you food,
I don’t have the ability of Hiranya Grabha,
To offer you vessels of Gold,
Oh God, who wears the young crescent,
Oh God of all beings,
Oh God who is the Lord of us all,
And Oh God who is teacher of all the three worlds,
If only I had all these,
I would have ability to serve you in a better way.

Nalam va paramopakaraka midham tvevam pasoonam pathe,
Pasyan kukshigathan charachara ganan bahyastithan rakshithum,
Sarvamarthya palayanoushadha mathijwalakaram bheekaram,
Nikshiptham garalam na gilitham nodgeerna meva tvaya.

Oh lord of all beings,
Is not your one and only one great help sufficient?
For with a view to give protection,
To those beings which are movable and immovable,
And which are placed inside thine belly,
And also to those who are placed outside,
The ultra fire producing and fearful herbal poison,
Which makes all the devas flee in fright,
Has been stopped by you in your neck itself.
It is neither swallowed nor spit out!

Jwalogra ssakalamaraathi bhayada kshvela kadam vaa twaya,
Drushta kincha kare dhrutha karathale kim pakwa jambu phalam,
Jihwayam nihitascha siddha gutika vaa kanta dese bhrutha,
Kim the neela mani vibooshana mayam shambho mahatman vada.

How was the fierce flame like poison
Which made, all the courageous devas fear,
Seen by you , my Lord?
Was that fire carried in your hand,
Did it appear like the fully ripe plum fruit to you?
Was it not kept on your tongue,
Did it appear as pills from the Siddha doctor?
Was it not worn in your neck,
Did it appear like a blue gem ornament to you?
Oh , Shmabhu the great one , be pleased to tell.

Naalam vaa sakrudeva bhavatha sseva nathirva nuthi,
Pooja vaa smaranam kathasravana mapyaalokanam maadrusam,
Swaminnasthira devathanusranaayasena kim labhyathe,
Kaa vaa mukthi ritha kutho bhavathi chetha kim prarthaneeyam thada

Is it not sufficient oh, God of Gods,
For attaining liberation for people like me-,
To do either service to you, Salutations to you,
Singing about you, Worshipping you,
Meditating on you, hearing your stories,
Or seeing you once .
What other liberation is there at all?
If I can attain liberation by these,
What else should I wish for?
What would I get by getting tired,
By following other unstable gods?

Kim broomasthwa sahasam pasupathe kasyasthi Shanbho bhava-
Dairye chedasa –mathmana stithi –riyam chanyai kadaham labhyathe
Brasyaddeva ganam trasan muni ganam nasyat prapancham layam
Pasyan nirbhaya eka eva viharathyananda sandhro bhavan.

Who can ever estimate thine valour, Pasupathe?
Who has the courage that you have, Oh Shambhu?
How can any one else attain thine state of mind?
While all devas loose their stability,
While all the crowd of sages tremble,
When the world is destroyed.
At the end of all-the great deluge,
You in solitude , fearlessly carry on thine play,
In intense rapture and pleasure.

Yoga Kshema durandarasya sakalaashraya –pradodhyogini,
Drushta adrushta mathopadesha kruthino bayanthra vyapina,
Sarvagnasya dhatakarasya bhavatha kim vedhitavyam maya
Shmbho twam paramantharanga ithi me chitta smaramyanvaham.

Engaged in gathering and preservation,
And giving of all the good things in life,
Teacher great of the known and the unknown,
Who has spread within and without,
Knower of all that is to be known,
And doer of all possible mercies,
What is there for me to tell you?
I daily think in my mind,
That you are very close to my mind,
And you are doer of god to me. Oh Lord Shambhu.

Bhaktho bhakthi guna avruthai mudhamrutha purne prasanne mana,
Kumbhe Sambha twamgri pallava yugam samsdhapya sawith phalam
Sathvam manthra mudheeraya nnija sareeragara shuddhim vahan,
Punyaham prakati karomi ruchiram kalyanas mapaa dhayan.

Oh Lord , who is with your consort,
I who am the devotee,
Having tied the thread of devotion,
Filled with water of happiness,
In the pot of my mind which is golden clear,
Have kept the mango leaves of your feet,
And the coconut of real knowledge,
And chant the holy peaceful five lettered Manthra
And am purifying this body which carries my soul,
And am searching good things which are pleasant to the mind,
And thus performing this ceremony of purification..

Amnayambudhi madarena sumana ssangha ssamyan mano,
Mandhanaam druda bakthi rajju sahitham kruthva madithva thatha,
Somam kalpatharum suparva surabhim chintamanim dheematham,
Nithyananda sudham niranthara rama sowbhagya mathanvathe.

The crowd of good minded people,
Are churning the ocean of Vedas with dedication,
Using the rope of stable devotion ,
And the churning stick of the attentive mind,
And get from it , the Lord with Uma , his consort,
Who is like the wish giving tree,
Who is like the wish yielding Kamadhenu,
Who is like the wish yielding gem , Chintamani,
Who for the knowledgeable is like the stable nectar of happiness,
And permanent granter of all luck given by Rema.

Prak punya chala marga darshitha sudha murthy prasanna shiva,
Soma sad guna sevitho mruga dhara poorna sthamo mochaka,
Chetha pushkara lakshitho bhavathi chedananda pado nidhi,
Pragalbhyena vijrimbhitha sumanasam vrithistada jaayathe.


Obtained through the path of mountain like good deeds,
Personification of happiness and nectar divine
Doer of good, who holds deer in his hand,
Who is complete and who removes the darkness of ignorance,
Who is seen clearly by the mind and who is with his consort Uma,
If he is then,
Sea of happiness would raise royally within ourselves,
And Good people like us will know how to live.


Seen through the holy mountain in the east,
Personification of clarity and white nectar,,
Doer of good who is served by the stars,
Who is full and who removes darkness of night,
Who is Soma the moon and who is seen in the sky
If he is then,
The sea would be raised by him royally,
And he would help the flowers to open.

Dharmo me chaduramdriga succharitha papam vinasam gatham,
Kama krodha madadhayo vigalitha kalaa suswawishkritha,
Gnananda mahoushadi suphalitha kaivalyanadhe sada,
Maanye manasa pundaeeka nagare raja vatamse sthithe.

Since the only emperor who is Lord Shiva,
Who is respected and royal,
Sits in the city of the lotus of mind,
The four legged Dharma[2] is well observed,
The Sins attain their last,
Passion anger and arrogance have gone away,
The seasons do only good,
And the royal curative crop of happiness and knowledge gives good yield.

Dhee yantrena vacho gatena, kavitha kuyo upa kulya kramai,
Raneethascha sadashivasya charitambhorasi divya amruthai.
Hrit kedara yuthascha bhakthi kalama saphalya mathanvathe,
Durbikshan mama sevakasya bhagavan viswesha bheethi krutha.

Irrigated using the machinery of wisdom,
Using the pot of words,
Brought through the canals and sub canal of poems,
The nectar like water of the story of Sadashiva,
Would make the crop of devotion growing in the field of heart,
Bloom.and give heavy yield.
And so god of gods who is the god of universe,
How can this servant of yours fear famine ever.

Papothpatha –vimochanaya ruchir aiswaryaya mrutyunjaya,
Stotra, dhyana nathi pradkshina, saparya alokana akarnane,
Jihwa, chittha, sirongri hastha nayana srothrairaham,
Mam agnapaya thannirupaya muhur mameva maa me avacha

To get released from the tragedy of sin,
And to taste the immortal wealth,
Oh Lord who has won over death,
The Tongue, mind, head, legs , hands, eyes and ears of mine,
Each request me respectively ,
To do thine praise, to meditate on you,
To bow before thy great self,
To go round and round you,
To see you soulfully and clearly,
And to hear thine praise and stories,
So please be kind to order me to do the above, Oh Lord,
And also again and again remind me to do these,
And please do not be mute with me for any reason.

Gambeerye pariswapadam dhanadruthi praakara uddhadguna,
Sthomaschaaptha balam dhanedriya chayo dwarani dehe stitha,
Vidhya vasthu samruddhi rithyakila samagri samethe sada,
Durgadhi priya deva mamaka mano durge nivasam kuru.

Oh Lord, who likes to live in an unapproachable fort[3],
With fathomless mind as its moat,
With strong determined courage as its walls,
With outstanding good qualities as its friendly army,
With the inlets of strong senses as its gates,
With immeasurable knowledge as its wealth,
And thus blessed with all that is needed,
Is the fort of my mind,
And so be pleased to live here forever.

Maa gacha twa mithasthatho Gireesa bho mayyeva vasam kuru,
Swamin adhikaratha mama kamana kanthara seemanthare,
Varthanthe bahuso mruga madha jusho matsarya mohadaya,
Sthan hathva mrugaya vinodha ruchita labham cha samprapsyasi.

Don’t go here and there, Oh God of mountains,
And please my lord always live in me,
For Oh primeval hunter, within the limits
Of the dreary forest of my mind,
Live many wild rutted animals like envy , delusion and others,
And you can kill and play thine sport of hunting,
And enjoy there yourself.

Kara Lagna Mruga Kareendra Bhango,
Gana Shardula vikkhandaosthu Janthu,
Giriso visadhakruthischa chetha Kuhare,
Pancha mukhosthi me kutho bhi


He who has the deer in his hand,
He who killed Gajasura,
He who cut cruel Vyagrasura in to pieces,
He who makes all beings to merge in Him,
He who is the lord of the mountains,
He who has a white body,
And he who has five faces,
Lives in the cave of my mind,
And how will fear ever come to me?


The being that holds the deer in its hand,
The being that kills wild elephants,
The being that can kill the ferocious tiger,
The being that can kill all other beings,
The being that is the Lord of the mountains,
The being that has a bright body,
The being that is called Lion,
Lives in the cave of my mind,
And how will fear ever come to me?

Chandha shaki sikhanvidai dwija varai samsevithe saswathe,
Sowkhya padini kkheda bedhini sudha sarai phalai dhherpithe
Chtha pakshi sikha manr tyaja vridha sanchara manyai ralam
Nithyam sankara pada padma pugali neede viharam kuru

Hey mind , which is the greatest bird,
In the tree with parts of Vedas as branches,
With Upanishads as its crown,
Being served by learned Brahmins as birds,
Which is indestructible,
Which gives pleasure giving joy,
Which destroys sorrow,
Whose fruits give out nectar as its juice,
And that which shines for ever,
Exists the two lotus feet of Sankara as cage.
Live in there iand daily play,
And stop your wanderings forever.
Suffice this wanderings of yours.

Aakeerne nakha raji kaanthi vibhavai rudhyat sudha vaibhavai,
Radhouthepi cha padmaragha lalithe hamsa vrijairasrithe,
Nithyam bhakthi vadhoo ganaischa rahasi swecha viharam kuru
Sthithva manasa raja hamsa girija nathamgri soudhantharai.

Oh mind , the king of swans,
Live secretly along with damsels of devotion to God,
In the house of lotus feet of the Lord of Girija
Filled with the luster of rows of nails of the lord,
Glistening with glorious tides of nectar ,
Made pretty red by bright red rubies,
Surrounded by ascetics who are like swans,
And live as you like with peace.

Shambhu Dyana vasantha sangini hridayarame agajeernaschada,
Strastha bakthi lalataschchataa vilasitha pushpa pravalasritha,
Deepyanthe guna koraka japavacha pushpani sadvasana,
Gnananda sudha marantha lahari samvit phalabyunnathi.

In the season of spring of meditation on Shambhu,
In the garden of the heart,
The dried leaves of sin fall off,
The throng of creepers of devotion glow,
The leaf buds of good action appear,
The flower bud of good character,
The flowers of prayer,
The heavenly scent of good deeds,
The flow of honey like ambrosia of joy of knowledge,
And the fruit of knowledgeable experience glow.

Nithyananda rasalayam suramuni swanthambhu jathasrayam,
Swacham sad dwija sevitham kalupahrith sadvasana vishkrutham,
Shambhu dyana sarovaram vruja mano hamsaavathamsa sthiram,
Kim kshudralaya phalvala bramana sanjatha sramam prapsyasi.

Filled with water of perennial happiness,
Seat of the lotus like heart of sages and devas,
Clear and approached by the birds of good people,
That which removes the dirt of sins,
Which emits the smell of goodness,
And which is the lake of meditation of Shiva,
May be reached permanently by you,
Of mind which is the best of swans,
Why instead go and reach,
This small puddle of common world which is the resort of the mean,,
And suffer the strains of aimless travel.

Anandamrutha pooritha harapadambhoja lavalodhyatha,
Sthaiiryopagna mupethya bakthalathika sakhoupasakhonvitha,
Uchaiirmanasa kayamana patali makramya nishkalmasha,
Nithyabeeshta phalpradha bavathu me satkarma samvardhitha.

Irrigated by the water of joy which is like nectar,
And sprouted from the devotion to the lotus feet of Shiva,
This creeper of devotion would catch on the branches of the firm character,
And climb and spread on the high frame of mind
Which has branches and sub branches,
And grow luxuriantly with sinless actions and deeds of devotion,
And give me daily for ever the sweet fruit of salvation,
Which is sweet to the mind.

Sandharambha vijrumbitham shruthi shirasthananda raaadishtitham,
Saprema bramarabhirama masakruth sadvasana shobitham,
Bhogindrabharanam samastha sumana poojyam gunavshkrutham ,
Seve srigiri mallikarjuna mahalingam shivalingitham.


He who enjoys dancing in the evening.
He who lives in the Upanishads ,
Which are in the end of Vedas,
He who is very handsome,
Because he is deeply in love with Bramarambika,[4]
He who always has the scent of devotion of sages,
He who wears king of snakes as ornament,
He who is worshipped by all with good mind,
He who is known for his good qualities,
He who is in the embrace of Parvathy,
And He , the Mallikarjuna[5] who lives atop the Srigiri[6],
Would be served by me.


That whose flower opens in the evenings,
That which is worn on the head over the ears,
That which is followed by sweet pretty bees,
That which for ever has sweet scent,
That which decorates the pleasure loving,
That which is rated the best among flowers,
That which glistens because of beauty and scent,
That which is liked by Goddess Parvathy,
And that which decorates the God Mallikarjuna,
Who lives atop Srigiri ,
Would be approached by me

Bhringischa natanothkata kari madha grahi sphuran madhava,
Hladho nadayutho mahasitha vapu pancheshuna chaddhadha,
Satpaksha sumano vaneshu sa puna sakshan madheeye mano,
Rajeeve bramaradhipo viharatham srishailavasi vibhu.


May he who likes to dance,
As per the wish of sage Bhringi,
May he who tamed Gajasura,
May he whose joy increased,
On seeing Vishnu in Mohini form,
May he who is the holy sound,
May he whose mien is crystal white,
May he who was slaved by the arrow,
Of the God of love,
May he who is interested in saving good people,
May he who lives in the Sri Shaila mountain,
May he who is everywhere,
And may he who is the consort of Goddess Bramarambika,
Appear before me and play in the lotus of my mind.


May that which likes to dance ,
As per the wish of the female bee,
May that which drinks the oozing rut from the elephant,
May that that whose joy increased,
On seeing the season of spring,
May that which makes sound,
May that with a jet black body,
May that which is like by the God of love,
May that which likes a flowering garden,
May that which likes to live in pretty mountain,
May that which can travel everywhere,
And may that holy male bee,
Appear and dance on seeing the lotus of my mind.

Karunyamritha varshinam ghanavishad greeshmachidha karmatam,
Vidhya sasya phalodayaya sumana samsevya miccha krithim,
Nrithyadbhaktha maadrinilayam chanchajjata mandalam,
Shambho vanchathi neelakandhara sada twam me manaschataka.


Hey Shambho , Hey God who has blue neck,
Who showers the nectar like mercy,
Who wants to cure painful aches of the mind,
Which are like the trouble caused by heat in summer,
Who is served by the good,
Wishing for a heavy harvest of the plant of knowledge,
Who can take any form,
Who has devotees who dance like the peacock,
Who lives on mountains,
And who has the waving tuft of hair,
My mind which is the Chataka bird,
Desires for you always,

Hey blue cloud , Hey harbinger of good,
Who showers the nectar like rain laced with mercy,
Who likes to cure the aches of hot summer,
Who is loved by the farmers,
Wishing for a heavy crop,
Who can assume any form,
Who has several peacocks dancing,
Who is stopped by the mountains,
And who has several waves of lightning,
My mind which is the Chataka bird,
Always desires for you.

Aakasena shikhi samastha phaninam nethra kalapi nathaa
Anugraahi pranavopadesa ninadai kekeethi yo geeyathe,
Syamam shaila samudbhavam ganaruchim drushtwa natantham mudha,
Vedanthopavane vihara rasikam tham neelakantam bhaje.

I serve and worship that Lord,
Who has the blue sky as the plume,
Who has thousands of eyes,
Like Adisesha who is the lord of snakes,
Who teaches Pranava to those who bow,
With blessings and wishes,
Who is sung about like the peacock,
Which sings “Ke” –”Ki”,
Who dances with joy,
On seeing cloud coloured Goddess Parvathy,
Who likes to play in the garden of Vedantha,
And who has a blue neck like the peacock.

Sandhya dharma dinatyayo harikara gatha prabhoo thanka,
Dhyano varidha garjitham divipadam drishticchatas chancnala,
Bhakthanam parithosha bhashpa vithathir vrishtir mayuri shiva,
Yasminnujwala thandavam vijayathe tham neelakantam bhaje

I pray the blue necked God who is like a peacock.
Whose glittering dance excels,
Done in the dusk in the end of summer,
With drum beats from the hands of Vishnu,
Like the thunder of the clouds,
With the shifting sights of Devas,
Like the bright changing lightning,
With the happy tears from eyes of devotees,
Like the rainfall from the sky,
And in front of Goddess Parvathy who is like the pea hen.

Aadhyayamithi tejase sruthipade vedhyaya sadhyaya the,
Vidhyananthamayathmane trijagatha ssamrakskshanod yogine,
Dhyeyakhila yogibhi ssuraganai mayavine,
Samyak thandava sambramaya jatine seyam nathissabhave.

To whom who is the first,
To whom who has great luster,
To whom who is known by the Vedas,
To whom who is possible to be known,
To whom who is of the form of knowledge and happiness,
To whom who is interested in saving the three worlds,
To whom who is meditated on by all Yogis,
To whom who is sung about by Devas,
To whom who keeps illusion with him,
To whom who is interested in vigorous dance,
To whom who has a matted lock,
And to whom who is personification of good,
Are my prostrations.

Nithyaya trigunatmane purajithe kathyayani sreyase
Sathyaadhi kudumbhine munimana pratyaksha chinmuthaye
Mayasrushta jagantrayaya sakalamnayantha sancharine
Sayam thandava sambramaya jatine seyam nathissambhave.

To whom who is forever,
To whom who is the soul of the holy trinity,
To whom who won over the three cities,
To whom who is the fame of Kathyayani,
To whom who is personification of truth,
To whom who was the first to have family,
To whom who appears before mind of sages,
To whom who created the three worlds by illusion,
To whom who is at the end of all Vedas,
To whom who enjoys dancing in the evening,
To whom who wears the matted lock,
To whom who is lord Shambhu.,
Are my prostrations.

Nithyam swodhara poshanaya sakalan uddhishya vithasaya,
Vyartham paryatanam karomi bavath sevam na jane Vibho,
Majjanmanthara pushyapaka balatha sthvam ssarva sarvanthara
Sththshtisyeva hi thena vaa pasupathe the rakshaniyoaasyaham.

Always For filling my stomach,
And desirous of becoming rich.
Many I have contacted,
And have traveled without aim,
But knew not service to you,
Oh all pervading one.
Oh, Lord of all beings,
Oh . Lord who wipes away sin of his devotees,
Because of the good that I did in my previous birth,
Knew I, that you are within all beings,
And so I become fit to be saved by you.

Eko varija bandhawa kshithi nabho vyaptham thamo mandalam,
Bithwa lochana gocharabhi bhavathi twam koti surya prabha,
Vedhya kinna bhavasyaho ghanatharam kee drug bhaven mathama,
Sthatsarva vyapaneeya me paupathe sakshat prasanno bhava.

The sun , the friend of the lotus,
Tearing the darkness pervading in sky and earth.
Becomes visible to the eye,
But you having the luster of billions of suns,
Are not known to me.
Alas! the darkness of ignorance,
Surrounding me must be very dense!
Oh , Lord of all beings,
Remove all that darkness,
And become really visible to me.

Hamsa padmavanam samichchathi yadha neelambhudham chataka,
Koka kokanadha priyam prathi dinam chandram chakorasthadha,
Chetho vanchathi mamakam pasupathe chinmarga mrugyam vibho,
Gowrinadha bhavath padabjha yugalam kaivalya soukhya pradam.

Oh Lord of all beings, Oh Consort of Goddess Gowri[7],
Oh all pervading one,
Just like the swan desires the cluster of lotus flowers,
Just like the Chataka[8] bird intensely longs for the blue dark cloud,
Just like the Chakravaka[9] bird longs for Sun, the Lord of lotus flowers,
And just like the Chakora[10] bird longs for the moon every day,
My mind longs for thine pair of lotus like feet,
Which can be searched only by path of knowledge,
And which bestows the bliss of emancipation.

Rodha sthoya hrutha sramena padhika sschaya, tharor vrishtitha,
Bheetha swastha gruham gruhasthamathithi deena prabhum dharmikam,
Dheepam santhamasaakulasscha shikhinam shheetha vruthastham thadha,
Chethassarva bhayapaham vruja sukham Shambho padambhoruham.

Just like the man dragged by flood longs for the bank,
Just like the tired traveler longs for the tree shade,
Just like the one who is afraid of rain longs for a pleasant home,
Just like the traveling guest longs for the sight of hospitable householder,
Just like the poor longs for the charitable rich,
Just like the one terrified by darkness longs for the light,
And just like one suffering from biting cold longs for the open fire,
Oh my mind, you long for the lotus feet of Shambhu.
Which removes all fears and phobias and gives pleasure.

Ankolam nija beeja santhathi rayaskkantho soochika,
Sadhvi naija vibhum latha kshithiruham sindhussaridvallabham,
Prapnothiha yadha thadha pasupathe padara sindhu dwaiyam,
Chetho vruthi roopethya thishtathi sada saa bhakthirithyuchyathe.

Like the real seed progeny reaches for the mother ankola tree,
Like the iron needle reaches for the load stone.
Like the chaste woman reaches for her lord,
Like the tender creeper reaches for near by trees,
Like the river reaches for the sea,
If the spirit of the mind,
Reaches for the lotus feet of Pasupathi,
And stays there always,
Then that state is called devotion.

Anandashrubhi ratha nethi pulakam nairmalyadha schadanam,
Vacha sankha mukhe sthidaischa jatara poorthi charithramruthai,
Rudrakshai rbhasithena deva vapusho raksham bavad bhavanaa paryankhe,
Vinivesya bakthi janani bhakthar bhakam rakshathi.

Oh Lord, the mother called devotion,
Bathes with tears of joy and feels enthralled,
Dresses she using the clean and pure mind,
Feeds and fills up the belly she with the nectar of your stories,
Found in words at the tip of the conch like vessel,
Protects she the body with Rudraksha and ash as amulets,
And takes care of the devotee child,
Placed in the cradle of Your memory.

Marga varthitha paduka pasupathe rangasya koorchayuthe,
Gandoo shampoo nishechanam pura ripo divyabhishekaa yathe,
Kinchid bhakshitha maams sesha kabalam navyopaharayathe,
Bhakthi kim karoth yaho vana charo bhaktha vatam sayathe.

The way faring sandals become the kusa crown of Pasupathi,
The gargled mouthful of water become the holy water of bath ,
To him who destroyed the three cities,
The just tasted pieces of the remaining meat ,
Become the holy offering to the Lord,
And wonder of wonders,the hunter who lives in the forest
Becomes the king of devotees.
What is there in this world that devotion to the Lord cannot do?

(This sloka refers to the devotion shown by Kannappa a hunter devotee of Lord Shiva.In the forest he used to remove his sandals and place it on the top of the idol, bring water in his mouth to bathe the idol and offer to the lord the meat pieces which he found were tasty.)

Vakshasthadanamathanthakasya katinapasmara sammardhanam,
Bhoobrith paryatanam namasthsura shira koteera samgarshanam,
Karbhedam mrudalasya thavaka pada dwandasya gowripathe,
Machchetho mani paduka viharanam Shambho sadaam angikuru.

Hey , Consort of Gowri,
Your tiny tender pair of feet is engaged,
In kicking at the chest of God of Death,
In trampling over hard hearted Apasmara,
In traveling on the mountains,
And in being beside the crowns on the heads of Devas,
Who prostrate before you.
Oh, Lord Shambhu,
Always recognize and be pleased to wear,
The gem studded shoes of my mind and travel.

Vakshasthadana sankhaya vichalitho vaiwaswatho nirjara,
Kotirojjwala rathna deepa kalika neeranjanam kurvathe.
Drushtwa mukthi vadhu sthanothi nibhruthaslesham bavani pathe,
Yacchedasthava pada padma bhajanam thasyeha kim durlabham.

Nothing impossible is there to attain,
For him who sings about your holy feet,
Oh consort of Bhavani,
For the god of death runs away,
Afraid of the kick from the Lord’s feet,
The lights shining in those jeweled tiara,
Of all the devas shows the offering of the camphor light,
And the pretty bride called liberation,
Folds him in tight embrace,
As soon as she sees him.

Kreedartham srujami prapancha makhilam krredamruga sthe jana,
Yat karmacharitham maya cha bhavatha prethyai bhavatyeva that,
Shambho swasya kuthuhalasya karanam macheshtitham nischitham,
Tasmat mamaka rakshanam pasupathe karthavya meva twaya.

Oh bestower of happiness,
You create the world for your sport,
All the people there are but animal toys to you,
All that I do is for your pleasure,
And it is true that all my actions are instrument fine.
For the pleasure of your devotees,
So, Lord of All beings,
My protection should indeed be done by you.

Bahuvidha parithosha bashpa poora,
Sphuta pulakamkitha charu bhoga bhumim,
Chirapada phalakamkshi sevyamanam,
Parama sada shiva bhavanam prapadye.

I seek refuge in meditation on the eternal Sadashiva
Which is the pretty land that can grow,
Vivid types of joy, pleasure full copious tears,
And real innate thrills in life,
Which is also the eternal stable state,
And which is sought by people searching for fruits,

Amitha mudha amrutham muhoordhahanthim,
Vimala bhavadpada goshta mavasanthim,
Sadaya pasupathe supunya pakaam,
Mama paripalay bhakthi dhenu mkaam.

Oh, store house of mercy, Oh, Lord of all beings,
Please be kind enough to look after,
The cow of my devotion to you,
Which constantly yields the ambrosia of happiness,
Which lives in the stable of your feet,
And which is the result of great and good deeds.

Jadatha pasutha kalankitha,.
Kutila charathwam cha naasthi mayi deva,
Asthi yadi Raja moule,
Bavathabharanasya naasmi kim pathram.

Idiocy , irrationality , blemishes,
And crooked gait , I do not have., Oh Lord,
And if I had , Lord with moon as a crown,
Perhaps I would be suitable as an ornament to you

Or in more detail

Inanimate skin of the tiger,
The deer which is not rational,
The moon which is blemished,
The serpent which has a crooked gait,
Are all worn by you as ornament,
Oh Lord who wears the crown with moon,
And by misfortune, I do not posses,
Any quality such as this.
If but I had, I may perhaps be,
Suitable as your ornament.

Aarahasi rahasi swathanthra budhya,
Varivasithum sulabha prasannamurthim,
Aganitha phaladhayaka prabhur me,
Jagat adhiko hridhi raja sekaarosthi.

In public and in secret,
And with independent intellect,
You are suitable to be worshipped.
Oh Lord ,who is pinnacle of graciousness,
And oh my Lord ,who can grant countless blessings,
So more than the impermanent world,
You ,the lord with the moon,
Is always in my heart.

Aarooda bakthi guna kunchitha bhava chapaa,
Yukthai ssivasmarana bana ganai ramoghai,
Nirjithya kilbisha ripoon vijayi sudeendra,
Saananda mavahathi susthira rajalakshmim.

With the bow string of peak devotion,
With the bow of meditation,
With memory of Shiva as the collection of arrows,
Which never gets depleted,
The best among the intellects,
Becomes victorious after winning,
Over the enemies called sin,
And attains the stable kingdom of heaven.

Dhyananjanena samavekshya thama pradesham,
Bithwa maha balibhi reeswara nama manthrai,
Divyasritham bujaga bhooshana mudhvahanthi,
Ye padapadma miha thee shiva thee krithartha.

Having located with the magic collyrium of meditation,
Having thrown light and destroyed darkness,
Using the chanting of the name of the Lord,
If any one can bring to the top,
Your lotus feet with serpentine ornaments,
Which is worshipped by devas by the great sacrifice,
Of repetition of your great story,
They attain the meaning of life.

Bhootharatha mudha vahad apekshaya sri,
Bhoodara eva kimatha sumathe labhasva,
Kedara makalitha mukthi mahoushadeenam,
Padaravinda bhajanam parameshwarasya.

Oh good mind of mine,
Do the chanting of the names,
Of the lotus feet of the God of universe,
In search of which even lord Vishnu,
Who has Lakshmi and Goddess Earth as consorts,
Took the form of a wild boar,
And which is the fertile land,
In which the panacea giving salvation from life grows.
What else great can you attain in this world?

Aasa pasa klesa dur vasanaadhi,
Bhedho dyukthi divya gandhai ramandhai.
Aasa saatikasya paadara vindam,
Chetha petim vaasitham me tanothu.

Engaged in removing by the ceaseless divine smell,
The desire, bondage, suffering and bad conduct within us,
Is the lotus feet of Him who wears the ether as garment,
And so let the box of my mind may be bestowed with divine fragrance.

Kalyaninam sarasa chithra gathim savegam,
Sarveingithagna managam dhruva lakashanadyam,
Chethosthuraga madhi roodya chara smarare,
Natha samastha jagatham vrushabahdhi rooda..

Oh enemy of the cupid,
Oh leader of the universe,
Oh God who travels on a bull,
Please mount and travel,
My mind which is a horse,
Which is auspicious,
Which has varied charming gaits,
Which moves with speed,
Which is skilled in knowing gestures of others,
Which does not have blemishes,
And which has auspicious looks.

Bhakthir mahesa pada pushkara mavasanthi,
Kadambiniva kuruthe parithosha varsham,
Sampooritho bavathi sasya manas thataka,
Sthajjanma sasya makhilam saphalam cha nanyam.

The devotion to the great lord,
Lives in the sky of the Lord’s feet,
And like clusters of clouds gives out the sweet rain,
And those whose lake of the mind,
Gets filled up by this rain,
The crop of his whole life,
Becomes greatly profitable.
How else could it be?

Buddhi sthira bhavithu meeswarapada padma,
Sakthaa vadur virahaneeya sada smaranthi,
Sadbhavana smarana darshana keerthanadi,
Sammohitheva shiva mantra japena vinthe.

My mind to get fixed on the lotus feet of the Lord,
Resembles the sweetheart separated from her lover,
And always remembers, has sweet dreams,
Recollects of early meetings and sings about it,
And in similar fashion chants the names of Lord Shiva,
In a trance and gets worried.

Sadupachara vidish vanubodhitham,
Savinayam suhrudham sadupashritham,
Mama samuddhara buddhi mimama prabho,
Varagunena navoda vadhoomiva.

Teach me the etiquette of serving the great,
With devotion, with clean mind and with attachment to the good,
And exalt my intellect, Oh, my Lord,
Like the noble groom leads his new bride.

Nithyam yogi mana ssaroja dhala samchara kshama stvath krama,
Ssambho thena kadhe katora yamarang vaksha kavata kshathi.
Atyantham mrudulam twadamgriyugalam haa me manaschintaya,
Tyethllochana gocharam kuru vibho hasthena samvahaye.

Daily used to move in soft lotus petalled mind of Yogis,
Oh Lord who is bestower of happiness,
How did it wound, the hard doors of the chest of God of death,
My mind is worried about your pair of feet that are tender and soft,
Oh God who is everywhere,
Make them visible to my eye,
And I will gently massage it with my hands.

Eshyathyesha janim mano asya katinam tasmin nata neethi ma,
Drakshayai giri somni komalapada nyasa purabhyasitha,
Noched divya gruhanthareshu sumana sthaleshu vedyadishu,
Prayassathsu shila thaleshu natanam sambho kimartham Thava.

This one will be born, his mind is hard,
And I have to dance on it.
So thinking my lord ,
To save me ,you walked with your tender soft feet,
On hard surfaced mountains,
During yore and practiced and learnt.
If it is not so instead of walking,
In divine homes, beds of flowers,
And well laid out paths.,
You danced on rocky surfaces.
Is it the meaning of that, Oh Shambhu?

Kanchit kala muma mahesa bhavatha padaravindarchanai,
Kanchi dyana samadhibischa nathibni kanchit kadha karnanai,
Kanchit kanchit vekshanaischa nuthibhi kanchid dasa meedrisim,
Ya prapnodhi mudha twasarpitha manaa jivan sa muktha khalu.

Hey , Lord who is with his consort Uma,
He who can spend some time
For worshipping your lotus feet,
For doing meditation and mixing with you,
For saluting you,
For hearing your holy stories,
For being in your prescence,
For singing your fame,
And being happy with his mind offered to you,
Attains salvation even when he is alive.

Banasthwam , vrishabhastwam Ardha vapusha baryatwam,
Gonithwam sakkhitha mridhangavahatha chetyadhiroopam dhadhow,
Twat pade nayanarpanam cha kruthavan twad deha bhago hari,
Poojyat poojyatharasya eva hi na chet ko vaa tadanyo adhika.

Oh Lord of Arya[11],
The lord Vishnu became your arrow[12] and bull[13],
Occupied half your body,
Became transformed to be your wife,
Occupying half your body
Became a boar to search for you,
Became your lady friend to serve the nectar,
Became the player of drum while you danced,
And offered his eye in worship at your feet,
He also took half the share of your body as Harihara,
And so he becomes eminently suitable for worship,
For who else is there greater than him.

Janana mruthi yuthanaam devathanaam,
Na bhavathi sukha lesa samsayo nasthi.
Ajani mamrutha roopam sambhameesam bhajanthe,
Ya eha paramasoukhyam the hi dhanya labhanthe.

There is no doubt that worship of mortal gods
Subject to birth and death will ever give even little happiness,
Worship of birthless Lord with Amba, who has deathless body,
Leads to supreme pleasure and those who do are blessed.

Shiva thava paricharyaa sannidhanaaya gowrya,
Bhava mama guna dhurya budhi kanyam pradhaasthe,
Saka;a bhuvana bhandho sachidanana sindho,
Sadya hrudaya gehe sarvada samvasa twam.

Oh , Lord Shiva who rules all the world,
And who is the friend of all the world,
Oh Lord who is ocean of bliss,
Oh store house of mercy,
To serve you besides your consort Gowri,
I am presenting you the maid of my intellect,
Who has all good qualities,
With a request to you.
To live in the house of my mind.

Jaladhi madhna daksho naiva patala bhedi.
Na cha mrigayayam naïve lubdha praveena,
Asana kusuma bhoosha vastra mukhyam saparya,
Kadhaya Kadamaham Kalpaya mindu moule.

Ignorant I am , as to how to churn the ocean,
Incapable I am of digging and going to Patala[14] ,
Nor am I a skilled hunter of wild animals,
So how will I ever arrange your worship,Lord who wears the moon,
With food[15] , ornament[16] and cloths[17] that you like.

Pooja dravya samruddhayo virachitha poojam kadam kurmahe,
Pakshitwam na cha vaa kitithwa mapi na praptham maya dhurlabham,
Jane masthaka mangri pallavam mumajane na theham vibho,
Na gnatham pithamahena harina tatwena that roopina.

Oh Consort of Uma,
Oh Lord who is everywhere,
Heaps of material for thine worship is ready,
But how will I ever worship thee?
Neither I can become a swan nor a boar,
And how will I ever find your crown and your tender feet,
When even Brahma and Vishnu who took those forms ,
Could not ever know about them.

Asanam garalam phani kalapo,
Vasanam charma cha vahanam Mahoksha,
Mama dasyami kim kimasthi shambho,
Thava padambhuja bhakthimeva dehi.

Oh Lord Shambhu, Your food is poison[18],
Your ornaments are the snakes,
Your clothes are thick hides,
And your vehicle is the big , majestic bull.
What are you ever going to offer me,
That I need out of these?
What else have you got?
Please give me only devotion,
To your lotus like feet.

Yadha krithambhonidhi sethu bandhana,
Karasthaladha drutha parvatha adhipa,
Bhavani the langitha padma sambhava,
Thada shivarcha sthava bhavanaa kshama.

How will I ever worship thee lord.
For I have not built the bridge across the sea[19],
I have not subdued the king of the mountain[20],
By palm of my hands,
And I am nor born out of lotus from the belly of Lord Vishn[21]u,
If I ever do or attain these,
Then I would become capable,
Of offering flowers, singing your praise and meditating on you.

Nathibhir nuthibhir stva meesa pooja,
Vidhibhir dhyana samadhibhir na thushta,
Dhanusha musalena chasmabhir vaa,
Vada they preethikaram thadha karomi.

Hey, Lord, who rules over the universe,
You seem to become more pleased,
With bow or with pestle or with stones[22].
Than with prostrations or singing of your praise or worship,
Or meditation or Samadhi[23]
Please tell me which you like most,
And I will do the same.

Vachasa charitham vadami Shambho,
Raha mudyoga vidhasu thee aprasaktha,
Manasa ruthi meeswarasya seve,
Shirasa chaiva sadashivam namammi.

By words I would sing your story, Oh, Lord Shambhu.
Because I am unsuited for the hard methods of Yoga,
And I would worship thee with my mind, oh , Easwara,
And also I would bow before you with my head, Oh Sadashiva..

Adhya avidhya hridgatha nirgathasid,
Vidhya hrudhya hrudgatha twat prasadath,
Seve nithyam srikaram twatpadambujam,
Bhave mukther bhajanam raja moule.

He who shines with the moon in his crown,
The primeval ignorance that used to live in my heart ,
From the beginning of time has disappeared by your grace.
And that knowledge which solves problems is living there.
And so I meditate on your lotus feet,
Which gives only good and grants salvation.

Dhoorikruthani durithani dhuraksharani,
Daurbhagya dhukka dhurahamkruthi durvachamsi,
Saaram twadeeya charitham nidharaam pibantham,
Gowrisha mamiha samuddhara satkadaksha.

Bad events, bad fate, bad luck, sorrow,
Bad egotism and bad words,
Have been driven away from me.
And uplift me ,who has been constantly drinking,
The tasty stories of yours,
Oh Lord of Uma with your looks of blessing.

Soma kaladhara moulou,
Komala Ghana khandhara maha mahasi,
Swamini girijanathe,
Mamaka hrudhayam nirantharam ramatham.

Oh Lord who wears the crescent of the moon,
Oh Lord, who has a neck with the colour of black cloud,
Oh Lord , who is the brightest light,
Oh Lord, who owns every thing,
Oh Lord, who is the consort of Girija,
Let my heart be delighted without break.

Saa rasana , thee nayane, thaveva karou ,sa eva kritha kruthya,
Ysa ye you yoo bharge vadathikshethe sadarchitha smarathi..

That which speaks of Lord Shiva , is the tongue,
That which see Him, are the eyes,
That which worship Him , are the hands,
And he who always remembers him, is the fulfilled man.

Athi mrudulou mama charana vathi katinam thee mano Bhavaneesa,
Ithi vichikitsam santhyaja katha masseed girou thadha pravesa.

Leave off such doubts Oh Lord of Bhavani, like,
“My feet are tender and your mind is hard”
For if that were so, how did you enter and live in the mountains hard ?

Dhairyankusena nibhrutham,
Rabhasa thakkrushya bhakthi srungalam,
Purahara charanalaane,
Hrudhya madhebham bhadhana chid yanthrai.

Oh Lord who destroyed the three cities,
Control the rutting elephant of my mind,
With the goad of courage,
Pull it strongly with the chain of devotion,
And tie it with the fetter of intellect ,
To the post of your holy feet.

Pracharathyabhitha pragalbha vruthya,
Madhavanesha mana karee gariyaan,
Parigruhya nayeena bhakthi rajjwa,
Parama sthanupadam drudam nayamum.

This big rutted elephant of my mind,
Wanders uncontrollably everywhere,
Oh Lord tie it with tact with the rope of devotion,
Hold it well and lead it to the ultimate stable state

Sarvalankara yuktham saralapadayutham sadhu vruttam suvarnam,
Sadbhi samasthuyamanam sarasa gunayutham lakshitham lakshanadyam,
Udyad bhoosha visesha mupa gatha vinayam dyotha manarth rekham,
Kalyanim deva gowri –priya mama kavitha kanyakam twam gruhana.


Qualities of a girl

Oh Lord, darling of Goddess Gowri,
Please accept and marry my poem, which is like a girl,
Who is well made up and ornamented,
Who has a pretty lovable gait,
Who is of very good character,
Who is or pretty attractive colour,
Who is being praised by all good people,
Who has sweet pleasant behavior,
Who is model among girls,
Who possess all ideals,
Who wears glittering ornaments,
Who behaves with decorum,
Who has the line of wealth in her palms,
And who is store house of all that is good.

Qualities of a poem

Oh Lord, darling of Goddess Gowri,
Please accept and marry my poem maid,
Which has good figures of speech,
Which is made up of simple lovable words,
Which has musical meter,
Which shines in well chosen letters,
Which is being praised by intellectuals,
Which has all good qualities,
Which aims at propagating devotion,
Which is a model poem,
Which has attractive phrases,
Which sounds soft and sweet,
Which has glittering and attractive import,
And which grants good to all

Idam the yuktham parama shiva karunya jaladhe,
Gathou thiryak roopam thava pada-shiro darshana dhiya,
Haribrahmanou thou divi bhuvi charanthou sramayuthou,
Kadam shambho sawamin kadhaya mama vedhyosi puratha.

Is it proper for you my Lord who is the ocean of mercy?
That while Lord Vishnu and Brahma took the forms of boar and bird,
With intention of seeing your head and feet,
Searched in vain the earth and sky,
Toiled and got tired but did not succeed.
You appeared and made yourself known before me easily,
Oh granter of all that is good, Oh my Lord.

Stothrenala maham pravachmi na mrusha deva virinchadaya,
Sthutyanam gananaprasanga samaye twam agra ganyam vidhoo.
Mahatmyagra vichaarana prakarane dhanathushasthomavath,
Dhoothaas twam vidhuruthhamotham phalam shambho bavat sevaka.

Oh Shambhu, all this praise I feel is enough,
Though I never wrote anything that is false.
When Lord Brahma and other Gods,
List all the great Gods,
They always put you as first.
And when your devotees search for the greatest God,
The other gods are moved away like the chaff from the grain,
And you are reckoned as the best among best of all grains.

Ithi Sree Paramahamsa pari vrujacharya Srimat Sankaracharya virachitha
Shivananda lahari Samaptham.

Thus ends Shivananda Lahari written by Sri Sankaracharya the Paramahamsa and Parvrijacharya.

[1] 432 Million years
[2] Dharma-righteousness
Its four legs are penance, cleanliness, mercy and truth.
[3] Can also be translated as “Oh Lord , who is very much loved by Goddess Durga”
[4] Paravathi whose scented hair is followed by bees.
[5] Name of Shiva meaning white Jasmine God
[6] A holy mountain temple in Andhra Pradesh
[7] another name of Parvathi
[8] Bird which only drinks rain water directly
[9] The bird of paradise
[10] The bird which only eats moon light
[11] Lady indicates consort of Shiva
[12] Became an arrow to destroy the three cities
[13] He is Nandi the bull on whom Shiva rides
[14] The world underneath.
[15] Poison obtained by churning of ocean,
[16]Serpants from Patala
[17] Tiger and elephant hides.
[18] See foot note to sloka no. 85
[19] Like Lord Rama
[20] Like sage Agasthya
[21] Like God Brahma
[22] Like Arjuna who sent arrows and pestle at him or Sakhya who used to throw stones at him.
[23] A deep meditation state when you forget yourself completely and become only him.

Adi Sankaracharya’s Bhaja Govindam-Worship Govinda at least in your old age-Prana Kishore

Bhaja Govindam-Worship Govinda at least in your old age.


The Acharya is believed to have composed the Bhajagovindam during his famous pilgrimage to Kashi (Benares).  The fourteen disciples are said to have accompanied him.  The story goes that when he was walking along the streets of Kashi, he was pained to observe an elderly man trying hard to learn Sanskrit grammar.

At his advanced age, the remaining valuable little time of his life should have been used for worshipping the God, instead of wasting on learning a language.

This prompted Sri Sankara to burst out this composition, a sort of rebuke to foolish way of living.

The Acharya urges the man to turn towards God and sing His glory instead of trying to learn a language.

A censure is implied when the Acharya calls the man a fool (Moodhamathe).  It may be added here that the tone of Bhajagovindam is not at all soft, but somewhat striking, in spite of its exotic poetic beauty and perfection of composition.  This is no wonder, because such a treatment is required to wake up man from his slumber.  A milder approach would delay the matter.

  The matter is urgent, as the Acharya explains in the next verse, for, when the hour of death approaches without any forewarning, the hard-learned verses of grammar are not going to save the poor soul.  Hence the song rightly starts without any preamble:

bhajagovindaM bhajagovindaM

govindaM bhajamuuDhamate .

saMpraapte sannihite kaale

nahi nahi rakshati DukRiJNkaraNe .. (1)

Worship Govinda, Worship Govinda, Worship Govinda. Oh fool! Rules of Grammar will not save you at the time of your death.

mUDha jahiihi dhanaagamatRishhNaaM

kuru sadbuddhiM manasi vitRishhNaam.

yallabhase nijakarmopaattaM

vittaM tena vinodaya chittam. .. (2)

Oh fool ! Give up your thirst to amass wealth, devote your mind to thoughts to the Real. Be content with what comes through actions already performed in the past.

naariistanabhara naabhiideshaM

dRishhTvaa maagaamohaavesham.

etanmaaMsaavasaadi vikaaraM

manasi vichintaya vaaraM vaaram. .. (3)

Do not get drowned in delusion by going wild with passions and lust by seeing a woman’s navel and chest. These are nothing but a modification of flesh. Do not fail to remember this again and again in your mind.

naliniidalagata jalamatitaralaM

tadvajjiivitamatishayachapalam .

viddhi vyaadhyabhimaanagrastaM

lokaM shokahataM cha samastam .. (4)

The life of a man is as uncertain as rain drops trembling on a lotus leaf. Know that the whole world remains a prey to disease, ego and grief.

yaavadvittopaarjana saktaH

staavannija parivaaro raktaH .

pashchaajjiivati jarjara dehe

vaartaaM ko.api na pRichchhati gehe .. (5)

So long as a man is fit and able to support his family, see the affection all those around him show. But no one at home cares to even have a word with him when his body totters due to old age.

yaavatpavano nivasati dehe

taavatpRichchhati kushalaM gehe .

gatavati vaayau dehaapaaye

bhaaryaa bibhyati tasminkaaye .. (6)

When one is alive, his family members enquire kindly about his welfare. But when the soul departs from the body, even his wife runs away in fear of the corpse.


taruNastaavattaruNiisaktaH .


pare brahmaNi ko.api na saktaH .. (7)

The childhood is lost by attachment to playfulness. Youth is lost by attachment to woman. Old age passes away by thinking over many past things. But there is hardly anyone who wants to be lost in parabrahmam.

kaate kaantaa kaste putraH

saMsaaro.ayamatiiva vichitraH .

kasya tvaM kaH kuta aayaataH

tattvaM chintaya tadiha bhraataH .. (8)

Who is your wife ? Who is your son ? Strange is this samsara. Of whom are you ? From where have you come ? Brother, ponder over these truths here.

satsaNgatve nissN^gatvaM

nissaNgatve nirmohatvam.h .

nirmohatve nishchalatattvaM

nishcalatattve jiivanmuktiH .. (9)

From Satsangh comes non-attachment, from non-attachment comes freedom from delusion, which leads to self-settledness. From self-settledness comes Jeevan Mukti.

vayasigate kaH kaamavikaaraH

shushhke niire kaH kaasaaraH .

kshiiNevitte kaH parivaaraH

GYaate tattve kaH saMsaaraH .. (10)

What good is lust when youth has fled ? What use is a lake which has no water ? Where are the relatives when wealth is gone ? Where is samsara when the Truth is known ?

maa kuru dhana jana yauvana garvaM

harati nimeshhaatkaalaH sarvam.h .

maayaamayamidamakhilaM hitvaa

brahmapadaM tvaM pravisha viditvaa .. (11)

Do not boast of wealth, friends, and youth. Each one of these are destroyed within a minute. Free yourself from the illusion of the world of Maya and attain the timeless Truth.

dinayaaminyau saayaM praataH

shishiravasantau punaraayaataH .

kaalaH kriiDati gachchhatyaayuH

tadapi na muJNcatyaashaavaayuH .. (12)

Daylight and darkness, dusk and dawn, winter and springtime come and go. Time plays and life ebbs away. But the storm of desire never leaves.


kathito vaiyaakaraNasyaishhaH .

upadesho bhuudvidyaanipuNaiH

shriimachchhankarabhagavachchharaNariH .. (12a)

This bouquet of twelve verses was imparted to a grammarian by the all-knowing Shankara, adored as the bhagavadpada.

kaate kaantaa dhana gatachintaa

vaatula kiM tava naasti niyantaa .

trijagati sajjanasaM gatiraikaa

bhavati bhavaarNavataraNe naukaa .. (13)

Oh mad man ! Why this engrossment in thoughts of wealth ? Is there no one to guide you ? There is only one thing in three worlds that can save you from the ocean from samsara. Get into that boat of satsangha quickly. Stanza attributed to Padmapada.

jaTilo muNDii luJNchhitakeshaH

kaashhaayaambarabahukRitaveshhaH .

pashyannapi cana pashyati muuDhaH

udaranimittaM bahukRitaveshhaH .. (14)

There are many who go with matted locks, many who have clean shaven heads, many whose hairs have been plucked out; some are clothed in saffron, yet others in various colors — all just for a livelihood. Seeing truth revealed before them, still the foolish ones see it not. Stanza attributed to Totakacharya.

aNgaM galitaM palitaM muNDaM

dashanavihiinaM jataM tuNDam.

vRiddho yaati gRihiitvaa daNDaM

tadapi na muJNcatyaashaapiNDam.. (15)

Strength has left the old man’s body; his head has become bald, his gums toothless and leaning on crutches. Even then the attachment is strong and he clings firmly to fruitless desires. Stanza attributed to Hastamalaka.

agre vahniH pRishhThebhaanuH

raatrau chubukasamarpitajaanuH .


tadapi na muJNcatyaashaapaashaH .. (16)

Behold there lies the man who sits warming up his body with the fire in front and the sun at the back; at night he curls up the body to keep out of the cold; he eats his beggar’s food from the bowl of his hand and sleeps beneath the tree. Still in his heart, he is a wretched puppet at the hands of passions. Stanza attributed to Subodha.

kurute gaNgaasaagaragamanaM

vrataparipaalanamathavaa daanam.h .

GYaanavihinaH sarvamatena

muktiM na bhajati janmashatena .. (17)

One may go to gangasagar(ganes), observe fasts, and give away riches in charity ! Yet, devoid of jnana, nothing can give mukthi even at the end of a hundred births. Stanza attributed to Sureshwaracharya.

sura ma.ndira taru muula nivaasaH

shayyaa bhuutala majinaM vaasaH .

sarva parigraha bhoga tyaagaH

kasya sukhaM na karoti viraagaH .. (18)

Take your residence in a temple or below a tree, wear the deerskin for the dress, and sleep with mother earth as your bed. Give up all attachments and renounce all comforts. Blessed with such vairagya, could any fail to be content ? Stanza attributed to Nityananda.

yogarato vaabhogaratovaa

saN^garato vaa saNgaviihinaH .

yasya brahmaNi ramate chittaM

nandati nandati nandatyeva .. (19)

One may take delight in yoga or bhoga, may have attachment or detachment. But only he whose mind steadily delights in Brahman enjoys bliss, no one else. Stanza attributed to Anandagiri.

bhagavad.h giitaa kiJNchidadhiitaa

gaNgaa jalalava kaNikaapiitaa .

sakRidapi yena muraari samarchaa

kriyate tasya yamena na charchaa .. (20)

Let a man read but a little from Gitaa, drink just a drop of water from the ganges, worship murari (govinda) just once. He then will have no altercation with Yama.Stanza attributed to dR^iDhabhakta.

punarapi jananaM punarapi maraNaM

punarapi jananii jaThare shayanam.h .

iha saMsaare bahudustaare

kRipayaa.apaare paahi muraare .. (21)


Born again, death again, birth again to stay in the mother’s womb ! It is indeed hard to cross this boundless ocean of samsara. Oh Murari ! Redeem me through Thy mercy. Stanza attributed to Nityanatha.

rathyaa charpaTa virachita kanthaH

puNyaapuNya vivarjita panthaH .

yogii yoganiyojita chitto

ramate baalonmattavadeva .. (22)


There is no shortage of clothing for a monk so long as there are rags cast off the road. Freed from vice and virtue, onward he wanders. One who lives in communion with God enjoys bliss, pure and uncontaminated, like a child and as someone intoxicated. Stanza attributed to Nityanatha.

kastvaM ko.ahaM kuta aayaataH

kaa me jananii ko me taataH .

iti paribhaavaya sarvamasaaram.h

vishvaM tyaktvaa svapna vichaaram.h .. (23)


Who are you ? Who am I ? From where do I come ? Who is my mother, who is my father ? Ponder thus, look at everything as essenceless and give up the world as an idle dream. Stanza attributed to surendra.

tvayi mayi chaanyatraiko vishhNuH

vyarthaM kupyasi mayyasahishhNuH .

bhava samachittaH sarvatra tvaM

vaaJNchhasyachiraadyadi vishhNutvam.h .. (24)


In me, in you and in everything, none but the same Vishnu dwells. Your anger and impatience is meaningless. If you wish to attain the status of Vishnu soon, have samabhava always. Stanza attributed to medhaatithira.

shatrau mitre putre bandhau

maa kuru yatnaM vigrahasandhau .

sarvasminnapi pashyaatmaanaM

sarvatrotsRija bhedaaGYaanam.h .. (25)


Do not waste your efforts to win the love of or to fight against friend and foe, children and relatives. See yourself in everyone and give up all feelings of duality completely. Stanza attributed to medhaatithira.

kaamaM krodhaM lobhaM mohaM

tyaktvaa.atmaanaM bhaavaya ko.aham.h .

aatmaGYaana vihiinaa muuDhaaH

te pachyante narakaniguuDhaaH .. (26)


Give up lust, anger, infatuation, and greed. Ponder over your real nature. Fools are they who are blind to the Self. Cast into hell they suffer there endlessly. Stanza attributed to bharativamsha.

geyaM giitaa naama sahasraM

dhyeyaM shriipati ruupamajasram .

neyaM sajjana saNge chittaM

deyaM diinajanaaya cha vittam. .. (27)


Regularly recite from the Gita, meditate on Vishnu [thro’ Vishnu sahasranama] in your heart, and chant His thousand glories. Take delight to be with the noble and the holy. Distribute your wealth in charity to the poor and the needy. Stanza attributed to sumatira.

sukhataH kriyate raamaabhogaH

pashchaaddhanta shariire rogaH .

yadyapi loke maraNaM sharaNaM

tadapi na muJNchati paapaacharaNam.h .. (28)


He who yields to lust for pleasure leaves his body a prey to disease. Though death brings an end to everything, man does not give up the sinful path.

arthamanarthaM bhaavaya nityaM

naastitataH sukhaleshaH satyam.

putraadapi dhana bhaajaaM bhiitiH

sarvatraishhaa vihiaa riitiH .. (29)


Wealth is not welfare, truly there is no joy in it. Reflect thus at all times. A rich man fears even his own son. This is the way of wealth everywhere.

praaNaayaamaM pratyaahaaraM

nityaanitya vivekavichaaram.

jaapyasameta samaadhividhaanaM

kurvavadhaanaM mahadavadhaanam .. (30)


Regulate the pranas, remain unaffected by external influences and discriminate between the real and the fleeting. Chant the holy name of God and silence the turbulent mind. Perform these with care, with extreme care.

gurucharaNaambuja nirbhara bhakataH

saMsaaraadachiraadbhava muktaH .

sendriyamaanasa niyamaadevaM

drakshyasi nija hR^idayasthaM devam. .. (31)


Oh devotee of the lotus feet of the Guru ! May thou be soon free from Samsara. Through disciplined senses and controlled mind, thou shalt come to experience the Indwelling Lord of your heart !

muuDhaH kashchana vaiyaakaraNo

DukRiJNkaraNaadhyayana dhuriNaH .

shriimachchhamkara bhagavachchhishhyai

bodhita aasichchhodhitakaraNaH .. (32)


Thus was a silly grammarian lost in rules cleansed of his narrow vision and shown the Light by Shankara’s apostles.

bhajagovindaM bhajagovindaM

govindaM bhajamuuDhamate .


nahi pashyaamo bhavataraNe .. (33)


Worship Govinda, worship Govinda, worship Govinda, Oh fool ! Other than chanting the Lord’s names, there is no other way to cross the life’s ocean.

Adi Sankaracharya’s 67 Q & A On How To Lead A Noble Life As A Proud Hindu-Prana Kishore



 67 Questions & Answers On Life for Childrens to make them Noble

Prasnottara Ratna Malika of Adi Sankaracharya –


Prashnottararatnamaalika is a short work  consisting of 67 slokas in simple Sanskirt verse.  This was composed by Adi Sankara, except the first and the last slokas which were introduced by his disciples or devotees.  This work, in the form of questions and answers, provides concise, pithy definitions of those eternal values which form the foundations of sanatana dharma  and which transcend all limitations of time and space.  Because of the simplicity of language, it is easy to commit the entire work to memory.  It can provide us sage advice when we find ourselves at the crossroads in our life unsure of the path we should take.  The work is especially useful to children for inculcating in them the basics of good conduct and to develop in them the capacity to discriminate the good from the bad.  Given below is the text of the work in Devanagari and Roman scripts with an English rendering of the meaning.

 कः खलु नालंक्रियते दृष्टादृष्टार्थसाधनपटीयान् ।

अमुया कण्ठस्थितया प्रश्नोत्तररत्नमालिकया ॥

1. kah khalu naalamkriyate drishtaadrishtaarthasaadhanapateeyaan

   Amuya kanthasthitayaa prashnottararatnamaalikaya

Who will not be adorned by wearing around his neck (committing to memory) this prasnottararatnamaalika which is capable of giving all that is desirable in this world and the next?

भगवन् किमुपादेयं? गुवचनं हेयमपिचकिम्अकार्यं

  कॊ गुरुरधिगततत्त्वः शिष्यहितायोद्यतस्सततम् ॥

2. Bhagavan kimupaadeyam?  guruvachanam heyamapicha kim? akaaryam

    Ko gururadhigata tathwah?  shishyahitaayodyatah satatam 

Q:  What is to be accepted without reservation?

A:  The words of the guru.

Q:  What is to be given up?

A:  Action which is against dharma

Q:  Who is  guru?

A:  One who has realized the Truth  and has the good of the disciple always in his heart.

३. त्वरितं किं कर्तव्यं विदुषां? संसारसंततिच्छेदः।

  किं मॊक्षतरॊर्बीजं? सम्यग्ज्ञानं क्रियासिद्धम् ॥ 

3. Twaritam kim kartavyam vidushaam?  samsaara santatichchhedah

    Kim mokshatarorbeejam?  samyagjnaanam kriyaasiddham

Q: What is to be done by wise men with the utmost urgency?

A:  Breaking  the cycle of births and deaths

Q: Which is the seed of moksha tree (liberation)?

A:  True knowledge which is put to actual practice

४.कः पथ्यतरो? धर्मः कश्शुचिरिह? यस्य मानसं शुद्धं ।

  कः पण्डितो? विवेकी किं विषं? अवधीरणा गुरुषु॥

4. Kah pathyataro? dharmah, kah shuchiriha? Yasya maanasam shuddham

    Kah pandito? Vivekee kim visham? avadheeranaa gurushu

Q: Which is the greatest good?

A:  Dharma

Q: Who is clean in this world?

A:  He who is pure in mind.

Q: Who is wise?

A:  He who has discimination, who can discriminate good from bad, dharma from adharma, eternal from the ephemeral  etc.

Q: What is poison?

A:  Disregarding the words of one’s guru and elders

५. किं संसारे सारं? बहुशॊपि चिन्त्यमानमिदमेव ।

   किं मनुजेष्विष्टतमं? स्वपरहितायोद्यतं जन्म॥

5. Kim samsaare saaram? Bahusho’pi chintyamaanamidameva

    Kim manujeshwishtatamam? Swaparahitaayodyatam janma

Q: What is the essence of this samsaara (cycle of births and deaths)

A:  It is the frequent contemplation on the question ‘What is  this samsaara?’

Q: What should a man ask for?

A: Take birth in this world for the benefit of oneself and others

६. मदिरेव मोहजनकः कः? स्नेहः, के च दस्यवो? विषयाः।

   का भववल्ली? तृष्णा, को वैरी? यस्त्वनुद्योगः

6. madireva mohajanakah kah? Snehah, ke cha dasyavo? Vishayaah

    Kaa bhavavallee? Trishna, ko vairee? yastwanudyogah

Q: Which is as intoxicating as liquor?

A:  Love

Q: Who are thieves?

A:  Pleasures of the senses


Q: Which is the samsaara-creeper?

A:  desire

Q: Who is the enemy?

A: Laziness

७. कस्माद्भयमिह? मरणात्, अन्धादिह को विशिष्यते? रागी।

   कः शूरो? यो ललनालोचनबाणैर्नव्यथितः॥

7. kasmaad bhayamiha? maranaat, andhaadiha ko vishishyate? Raagee

    Kah shooro? Yo lalanaa lochanabaanairna vyathitah

Q: From who is fear?

A:  From death

Q: Who is worse than a blind person?

A:  One who is in the grip of love (desire)

Q: who is valiant

A: One who does not become afflicted by the eye-arrows (gaze) of beautiful women

८. पातुम् कर्णाञ्जलिभिः किममृतमिह युज्यते? सदुपदेशः।

  किं गुरुताया मूलं? यदेतदप्रार्थनं नाम

8. paatum karnaanjalibhih kimamritamiha yujyate? Sadupadeshah

    Kim gurutaayaa moolam? Yadetadapraarthanam  naama

Q: What is fit to be drunk like nectar by cupping the ears?

A: Advice of good (saintly) persons

Q: What is the root of dignity?

A:  Not requesting any one anything

९. किं गहनं? स्त्रीचरितं, कश्चतुरो? यो न खण्डितस्तेन ।

   को दु:खं असंतोषः किं लाघवं? अधमतो याच्ञा॥

9. kim gahanam? Streecharitam, kashchaturo? Yo na khanditastena

    Ka dukham? Asamtoshah kim laaghavam? Adhamato yaachjnaa

Q: Which is deep?

A:  Character of women

Q: Who is clever?

A: One who is not deceived by the conduct of a woman

Q: What is sorrow?

A:  Want of contentment

Q: What makes one light (laughing stock)  in the eyes of others ?

A: Begging from a mean person

१०. किं जीवितं? अनवद्यं, किं जाड्यं? पाठतॊप्यनभ्यासः।

    को जागर्ति? विवेकी, का निद्रा? मूढता जन्तोः॥

10. kim jeevitam? Anavadyam, kim jaadyam? Paathatopyanabhyaasah

      Ko jaagarti? Vivekee, kaa nidraa? Moodhataa jantoh

Q: What is life as it should be?

A: That which is unblemished

Q: What is stupidity (foolishness)?

A:  Not practicing what one has learned

Q: Who is awake?

A: He who has discrimination, who can discriminate good from bad, dharma from adharma, the eternal from the ephemeral 

Q: What is sleep?

A:  Ignorance of a person

११. नलिनीदलगतजलवत्तरलं किं? यौवनं धनं चायुः।

    कथय पुनः के शशिनः किरणसमानाः? सज्जना एव॥

11. nalineedalagatajalavattaralam kim? Yauvanam dhanam chaayuh

      Kathaya punah ke shashinah kiranasamaah? Sajjanaa eva

Q: Which is volatile  like a drop of water on a lotus leaf?

A:  Youth, wealth and life span of a person (aayuh)

Q: Who are those who, like the rays of the moon, make people happy?

A: Good persons (sajjanaah)

१२. को नरकः? परवशता, किं सौख्यं?सर्वसङ्गविरतिर्या

    किं साध्यं भूतहितं, प्रियं च किं प्राणिनां? असवः॥

12.  Ko narakah? Paravashataa, kim saukhyam? Sarvasangaviratiryaa

       Kim saadhyam? Bhootahitam, priyam cha kim praaninaam? Asavah

Q: Which is Hell?

A:  Being under the control of another

Q: What is happiness?

A: Giving up all attachments

Q: What is to be achieved?

A: Doing good to all living beings

Q: What is dear to all beings?

A: One’s own life

१३. कॊऽनर्थफलो? मानः, का सुखदा? साधुजनमैत्री ।

    र्वव्यसनविनाशे को दक्षः? सर्वथा त्यागी॥

13. ko’narthaphalo? Maanah, kaa sukhadaa? Saadhujanamaitree

      Sarvavyasana vinaashe ko dakshah? Sarvathaa tyaagi

Q: What will result in misfortune?

A: conceitedness

Q: What will give happiness?

A: Friendship with the good.

Q: Who is good at wiping out all sorrows?

A: One who gives up everything in every way

१४. किं मरणं? मूर्खत्वं, किं चानर्घं? यदवसरे दत्तं ।

    आमरणात्किं शल्यं? प्रच्छन्नं यत्कृतं पापं॥

14. Kim maranam?  Moorkhatwam, kim chaanargham? Yadavasare dattam

     Aamaranaath kim shalyam? Prachchhannam yatkritam paapam

Q: What is death?

A:  Stupidity (foolishness)

Q: What is invaluable?

A: That which is given at the appropriate moment when it is most needed by the recipient

Q: What will be a thorn in the flesh  until one’s death?

A:  A sin committed secretly.

 १५. कुत्र विधेयो यत्नो? विद्याभ्यासे सदौषधे दाने ।\

     अवधीरणा का कार्या? खलपरयोषित्परधनेषु ॥ 


    15. kutra vidheyo yatno? Vidyaabhyaase sadaushadhe daane

        avadheeranaa kaa kaaryaa? Khalaparayoshitparadhaneshu


Q:  Where should one direct one’s efforts?

A:  In the acquisition of knowledge, healthy medicines and  in generously giving  to       the  needy.

Q:  What should one  disregard (not care about)?

A:   Bad characters, other men’s wives and others’ wealth 

१६. काऽहर्निशमनुचिन्त्या? संसारासारता न तु प्रमदा।

    का प्रेयसी विधेया? करुणा दीनेषु सज्जने मैत्री॥

16. kaa’harnishamanuchintyaa? Samsaaraasaarataa na tu pramadaa

      Kaa preyasee vidheya? Karunaa deeneshu sajjane maitree

Q:  What one should think of day and night?

A:   Evanescence of this world ( samsaara), not beautiful women

Q:  What should be the object of one’s love?

A:   Kindness towards the miserable and friendship with the good.

१७. कण्ठगतैरप्यसुभिः कस्य ह्यात्मा न शक्यते जेतुम्?

    मूर्खस्य शंकितस्य विषादिनो वा कृतघ्नस्य॥

17.  kanthagatairapyasubhih  kasya hyaatmaa na sakyate jetum?

       Moorkhasya shankitasya vishaadino vaa kritaghnasya

Q:  Whose aatmaa (mind, soul) cannot be conquered (brought to the righteous path) even when he is on his death bed?

A:   The aatmaa of a fool,  of an incorrigible doubter, of one steeped in sorrow or of one who is ungrateful

१८ कः साधुः? सद्वृत्तः कमधममाचक्षते? त्वसद्वृत्तं।

   केन जितं जगदेतत्? सत्यतितिक्षावता पुंसा॥

18.  kah saadhuh? Sadvrittah kamadhamamaachakshate? Twasadvrittam

        kena jitam jagadetat? Satyatitikshaavataa pumsaa

Q: Who is a saadhu?

A:  One whose conduct and character are good

Q:  Who is considered  the worst kind of person?

A:  One whose conduct and character are bad

Q: By whom is this world conquered?

A: By one who is established in truth and forbearance (capacity to suffer)

१९. कस्मै नमांसि देवाः कुर्वन्ति? दयाप्रधानाय।

    कस्मादुद्वेगस्स्यात्? संसारारण्यतः सुधियः॥

19.  kasmai namaamsi devaah kurvanti? Dayaapradhaanaaya

       kasmaadudwega syaat? Samsaaraaranyatah sudhiyah

Q: To whom the celestials (devas) offer their salutations?

A:  To the one whose chief virtue is kindness

Q:  What causes fear in the mind ?

A:   The forest of samsaara creates fear in the mind of wise men.

२०. कस्य वशे प्राणिगणः? सत्यप्रियभाषिणो विनीतस्य।

    क्व स्थातव्यं? न्याय्ये पथि दृष्टादृष्टलाभाढ्ये॥

 20.  kasya vashe praaniganah? satyapriyabhaashino vineetasya

       kwa sthaatavyam? Nyaaye pathi drishtaadrishta laabhaadhye

Q:    In whose control are living beings?

A:     One whose words are true and soothing and whose virtue is humility

Q:    Where should one stay?

A:     On the righteous path which yields good in this world and the other world.

२१. कोऽन्धो? योऽकार्यरतः को बधिरो? यो हितानि न शृणोति।

    को मूको? यो काले प्रियाणि वक्तुं न जानाति॥

 21.  ko’ndho? Yo’kaaryaratah,  ko badhiro? Yo hitaani na shrinoti

       ko mooko? Yah kaale priyaani vaktum na jaanaati

Q: Who is blind?

   A: One whose actions are bad.

Q: Who is deaf?

   A: One who does not listen to sage advice.    

Q: Who is dumb?

   A:  One who cannot  utter kind and sweet words at the appropriate time. 

   २२.  किं दानं? अनाकाङ्क्षं, किं मित्रं? यो निवारयति पापात्।

       कोऽलंकारः शीलं, किं वाचां मण्डनं? सत्यं॥

   22.  kim daanam? Anaakaangksham, kim mitram? Yo nivaarayati paapaat

          Ko’lamkaarah? Sheelam, kim vaachaam mandanam? Satyam

Q: What is giving?

    A:  That which is given without being asked for

Q:  Who is a friend?

    A:  One who prevents from committing sinful actions.

Q:  What is adornment?

    A:   Good conduct.

Q:  What adorns speech?

    A:  Truth

   २३. विद्युद्विलसितचपलं किं? दुर्जनसंगतिर्युवतयश्च।

      कुलशीलनिष्प्रकंपा: के कलिकालेऽपि? सज्जना एव॥

   23.   vidyudwilasitachapalam kim? Durjanasangatir yuvatayashcha 

           Kulasheelanishprakampaah ke kalikaale’pi? Sajjanaa eva

Q:    Which is as fleeting (transient) as lightning?

    A:     The company of bad persons and  young women

Q:     Who, even in this age of Kali, do not deviate from the right conduct

            followed by their forebears?

    A:      Good persons (sajjanaah)

   २४.   चिन्तामणिरिव दुर्लभमिह किं? कथयामि तच्चतुर्भद्रं।

      किं तद्वदन्ति भूयो विधूततमसो विशेषेण?

   २५. दानं प्रियवाक्यसहितं ज्ञानमगर्वं क्षमान्वितं शौर्यं।

     वित्तं त्यागसमेतं दुर्लभमेतच्चतुर्भद्रं॥

         24.   Chintaamaniriva durlabhamiha  kim?  Kathayaami tachchaturbhadram 

                Kim tadwadanti bhooyo  vidhootatamaso visheshena

25.   daanam priyavaaksahitam  jnaanamagarvam  kshamaanvitam shauryam

           Vittam tyaagasametam durlabhametat chaturbhadram

Q:  Which is rare as the chintamani which turns iron into gold?

    A:  Chaturbhadram  (four auspicious things )

Q: Which are those four auspicious things according to enlightened souls?

A:  A gift accompanied by soothing pleasant words, knowledge devoid of

          arrogance, valour  tempered by forgiveness,  Wealth accompanied by

          philanthropy (altruism or generosity)  –  these,  known as chaturbhadram,

          are very rare indeed.

  २६. किं शोच्यम्? कार्पण्यं, सति विभवे किं प्रशस्तं? औदार्यं ।

     कःपूज्यॊ विद्वद्भिः? स्वभावतः सर्वदा विनीतो यः 


   26.  kim shochyam? Kaarpanyam, sati vibhave kim prashastam? Audaaryam

          Kah poojyo vidwadbhih? Swabhaavatah sarvadaa vineeto yah

Q:  What is to be lamented?

    A:  Stinginess (parsimony). (Karpanyam is the attribute of a kripana  who

         neither enjoys his wealth  nor uses it for the  benefit of the needy, whose

         wealth is of use neither here in this world nor hereafter)

Q: What is to be praised when one has the means for luxurious living?

     A: generosity (magnanimity) 

Q: Who deserves respect from the learned and the wise?

      A: One, who by his very nature, is full of humility

    २७. कः कुलकमलदिनेशः? सति गुणविभवेऽपि यो नम्रः।

      कस्य वशे जगदेतत्? प्रियहितवचस्य धर्मनिरतस्य॥

27.  kah kulakamala dineshah? Sati gunavibhave’pi yo namrah

                kasya vashe jagadetat? Priyahitavachanasya dharmaniratasya   

Q:  Who is the Sun for the lotus which is  one’s dynasty (kulakamala)?         A:  One who, in spite of possessing all good qualities, is meek ( humble, full

            of humility)

Q: In whose control is this world?

      A: One whose speech is pleasing and beneficial and who always walks the

           righteous path(dharmaniratah)

      २८. विद्वन्मनोहरा का? सत्कविता बोधवनिता च।

        कं न स्पृशति विपत्तिः? प्रवृद्धवचनानुवर्तिनं दान्तं॥    

28.  vidwanmanoharaa kaa? Satkavitaa bodhavanitaa cha

              kam na sprishati vipattih? Pravruddhavachanaanuvartinam daantam

Q:  What captivates the heart of the learned and the wise?

       A:  Good poetry and the maid of knowledge.

Q:  Whom does misfortune not touch?

       A:  One who heeds the advise of elders and is meek (humble).

       29. कस्मै स्पृहयति कमला? त्वनलसचित्ताय नीतिवृत्ताय।

       त्यजति च कं सहसा? द्विजगुरुसुरनिन्दाकरं च सालस्यं        

29.  kasmai sprihayati kamalaa? Twanalasachittaaya neetivrittaaya

              tyajati cha kam sahasaa? Dwijagurusuranindaakaram cha saalasyam

Q:   Whom does Goddess Lakshmi like?

        A:   One whose mind is not lazy and whose conduct and character are


Q:  Whom does Goddess Lakshmi forsake instantly?

        A:  One who talks ill of brahmins, gurus and devas  and is lazy

        3०. कुत्र विधेयॊ वासः? सज्जननिकटेऽथवा काश्यां।

         कः परिहार्यॊ देशः? पिशुनयुतो लुब्धभूपश्च॥

         30.  kutra vidheyo vaasah? Sajjananikate’thavaa kaashyaam

                kah parihaaryo deshah? Pishunayuto lubdhabhoopashcha

        Q: Where should one reside?

        A: In the proximity of good people or in Kashi (Varanasi)

Q: Which place should be avoided?

        A:  A place inhabited by mean people and ruled by a greedy and stingy


         ३१  केनाशोच्यः पुरुषः?  प्रणतकलत्रेण धीरविभवेन।

          इह भुवने कः शोच्यः? सत्यपिविभवे यो न दाता॥

          31.  kenaashochyah purushah? Pranatakalatrena dheeravibhavena

                Iha bhuvane kah shochyah? Satyapivibhave yo na daataa

Q: What makes a person free from sorrow?

        A:  A submissive wife and abiding means of livelihood.

Q:  In this world about whom one should feel sorry?

         A:  One, though affluent, does not give (to the poor and needy).

      ३२. किं लघुतायाः मूलं? प्राकृतपुरुषेषुयाच्ञा।

    रामादपि कः शूरः स्मरशरनिहतो न यश्चलति॥

32.  kim laghutaayaa moolam? Praakrita purusheshu yaachjnaa

             Raamaadapi kah shoorah? Smarasharanihato na yashchalati

Q: What is the root cause of derision (contempt)?

         A:  Begging from mean persons

Q: Who is more valiant than Rama?

          A: One whose mind, struck by the arrows of Cupid, does not falter


         ३३. किमहर्निशमनुचिन्त्यं? भगवच्चरणं न संसारः।

         चक्षुष्मन्तोऽप्यन्धाः के स्युः? ये नास्तिका मनुजाः॥

         33.  kimaharnishamanuchintyam? Bhagavachcharanam na samsaarah

                Chakshushmanto’pi andhaah ke syuh? Ye naastikaa manujaah

Q: What should one think of day and night?

        A:  The lotus feet of the Lord, not worldly things

Q:  Who are blind in spite of having  eyes?

        A: Those who say that God does not exist or those who deride the Vedas

               ( naastiko vedanindakah –Amarakosam)

३४.  कः पंगुरिह प्रथितो? व्रजति च यो वार्धके तीर्थं ।

    किं तीर्थमपि च मुख्यं? चित्तमलं यन्निवर्तयति॥            

34.    kah Panguriha prathito? Vrajati cha yo vaardhake teertham

          kim teerthamapi cha mukhyam? Chittamalam yannivartayati

Q:  Who is said to be lame?

  A:  One who undertakes a pilgrimage (teeertha yaatraa) in ripe old age

       (meaning he should have done it while still  young)

Q:  Which is the most important teertha ( a holy river, lake, sea or other

         water body a dip in which, it is believed,  absolves one of one’s sins)?

    A: That which washes away the accumulated dirt (bad vasanas) in the



   ३५. किं स्मर्तव्यं पुरुषैः?हरिनाम सदा,न यावनी भाषा।

      को हि न वाच्यः सुधिया? परदोषश्चानृतं तद्वत्॥

35.  kim smartavyam purushaih? Harinaama sadaa, na yaavanee bhaashaa

         Ko hi na vaachyah sudhiyaa? Paradoshashchaanrutam tadwat

Q: What should a person remember always

    A:  The name of Hari, not the language of the yananaas  (the Greek)

Q:  What is unutterable by one who is wise?

     A:  Faults of others and untruth

    ३६. किं म्पाद्यं मनुजैः?विद्या बलं यशः पुण्यं।

      कः सर्वगुणविनाशी? लोभःशत्रुश्च कः? कामः॥

     36.   kim sampaadyam manujaih? Vidya balam yashah punyam

            kah sarvagunavinaashee? Lobhah shatrushcha kah? Kaamah

Q: What should be earned by men?

                A:  Knowledge, strength, fame and meritorious deeds (punya)

Q: Which is the destroyer of all good qualities?

                A:  Greed

Q: Who is the enemy?

                A: Lust, desire.

३७. का च सभा परिहार्या? हीना या वृद्धसचिवेन

    इह कुत्र अवहित स्यान्मनुष्यः किल राजसेवायां॥            

37. kaa cha sabhaa parihaaryaa? Heenaa yaa vriddhasachivena

           Iha kutra avahitah syaanmanujah? Kila raajasevaayaam

Q:  Which assembly should be avoided

 A:   One which is devoid of an experienced minister

Q:  Where should a person be careful in this world?

  A:  In the  service of the King. 

38. प्राणादपि को रम्यः? कुलधर्मः साधुसंगश्च।

    का संरक्ष्या? कीर्तिः पतिव्रता नैज बुद्धिश्च॥

38. Praanaadapi ko ramyah? Kuladharmah saadhusangashcha

     Kaa samrakshyaa? Keertih pativrataa naija buddhishcha

Q: What is dearer than life?

A:  The dharma followed by the forebears and company of saintly persons

Q: Who deserve to be protected?

 A: Fame, chaste woman and one’s own intellect (common sense)

३९. का कल्पलता लोके? सच्छिष्यायार्पिता विद्या।

    कोऽक्षयवटवृक्षस्यात्? विधिवत् सत्पात्रदत्तं दानं यत्॥।

39.  kaa kalpalataa loke? Sachchhishyaayaarpitaa vidyaa

       Ko’kshayavatavrikshasyaat? Vidhivat satpaatradattadaanam yat

Q: Which is the wish-yielding creeper (kalpalataa) in this world?

 A:  Knowledge imparted to a deserving disciple.

Q: Which is the eternal banyan tree  (akshayavatavriksha)?

  A:  A gift to a fit recipient given in accordance with scriptural injunctions.

 ४०. किं शस्त्रं सर्वेषां? युक्तिः, माता च का? धेनु:।

    किं नु बलम्? यद्धैर्यं. को मृत्युः? यदवधारणारहितत्वं॥  

 40.  kim sastram sarveshaam? Yuktih, maataa cha kaa? Dhenuh

        Kim nu balam? Yaddhairyam,ko mrityuh? Yadavadhaanarahitatwam

Q:  Which is the weapon for everybody?

    A:  Stratagem (ruse, trick)  

Q: Who is the mother of all?

   A:  the cow

Q: What is strength?

    A:  Courage, adamantine heart

Q: Which is death?

    A:  Carelessness

   ४१. कुत्र विषं? दुष्टजने, किमिहाशौचम् भवेत्? ऋणं नृणां।

     किमभयमिह? वैराग्यं भयमपि किं? वित्तमेव सर्वेषां ॥

41.  kutra visham? Dushtajane, kimihaashaucham bhavet? Rinam nrinaam

       kimabhayamiha? Vairaagyam bhayamapi kim? Vittameva sarveshaam

Q: Where is poison?

A:  In bad persons

Q: What is ceremonial pollution (aashaucham)?

A:  Indebtedness of men 

Q: What is it which gives fearlessness?

A:  Non-attachment to worldly things

Q: What is fear?

A: For everyone wealth is the source of fear

४२. का दुर्लभा नराणाम्? हरिभक्तिः, पातकं च किम्? हिंसा।

    को हि भगवत्प्रियः स्यात्? योऽन्यमुद्वेजयेदनुद्विग्नः

42.  kaa durlabhaa naraanaam? Haribhaktih, paatakam cha kim? himsaa

       Ko hi bhagavat priyah syaat? Yo’nyam nodwejayedanudwignah

Q: What is difficult to acquire for men?

A:  Devotion to Hari

Q: What is sin?

A: Himsaa  (causing physical or mental injury to living beings)

Q: Who is dear to God?

A:  One who does not cause mental agitation to  others and himself does not get mentally agitated.

४३. कस्मात्सिद्धिः? तपसः, बुद्धिः क्व नु? भूसरे।

   कुतोबुधिः? वृद्धोपसेवया, के व्रिद्धा: ये धर्मतत्त्वज्ञा:॥

43.  kasmaat siddhih? Tapasah, buddhih kwa nu? Bhoosure, kuto

        buddhih?  Vriddhopasevayaa, ke vriddhaah? Ye dharmatattvajnaah

Q:  What is the source of achievement?

A:   Penance (Tapas)

Q:  where is intelligence?

A:  In the brahmin

Q: From where intelligence?

          A: From the service of the aged (vriddhaah)

Q:  Who are aged  (vriddhaah)?

           A:   Those who know the essence of dharma

          ४४. संभावितस्य मरणादधिकं किं? दुर्यशो भवति।

          लोके सुखी भवेत् को? धनवान्, धनमपि च किं? यतश्चेष्टं॥ 

44.  sambhaavitasya maranaadadhikam kim? Duryasho bhavati

                 Loke sukhee bhavetko? Dhanavaan, dhanamapi cha kim?


Q:  What is worse than death for a person who is honoured by men?

 A:   Ignominy is worse than death. 

Q:  Who is comfortable in this world?

           A:   A wealthy person

Q:  What is wealth?

           A:  That by which one can get what one likes

           45.  सर्वसुखानां बीजं किं? पुण्यम्, दु:खमपि कुतः पापात्।

           कस्यैश्वर्यं? यःकिल शंकरमाराधयेत्भक्त्या॥

           45. Sarvasukhaanaam beejam kim? Punyam, dukhamapi kutah? papaat

       Kasyaishwaryam? Yah kila shamkaramaaraadhayet bhaktyaa

Q:  What is the seed of all happiness(comforts)?

           A:  Punya   (the fruit of meritorious deeds)

Q:  From where is sorrow?

           A:  From paapa (the fruit of sins)

Q:  Who has affluence and exerts control over others?

           A:   One who worships Lord Shiva with devotion

       ४६. को वर्धते? विनीतः, को वा हीयते? यो दृप्तः।

        को न प्रत्येतव्यो? ब्रूते यश्चानृतम् शश्वत्॥

46.  Ko vardhate? Vineetah, ko vaa heeyate? Yo driptah

      Ko na pratyetavyo? Broote yashchaanritam shashwat

Q:  Who ahieves progress?

          A:  One who is meek (full of humility)

Q:  Who goes down?

          A:  One who is vain and arrogant

Q:  Who cannot be trusted?

          A:  One who always tells lies.

 ४७. कुत्राऽनृतेप्यपापं? यच्चोक्तं धर्मरक्षणार्थं

    को धर्मो? अभिमतो यः शिष्टानां निजकुलीनानां॥

47. kutraa’nritepyapaapam, yachchoktam dharmarakshaartham

     ko dharmo? Abhimato yah shishtaanaam nijakuleenaanaam

Q: When is uttering a lie not a sin ?

A: When it is done for the protection of dharma

Q: What is dharma ?

A:  Such conduct and values as have been accepted as the right ones by the

     noble souls  amongst one’s forebears.

४८. साधुबलं किं? दैवं, कः साधु:? सर्वदा तुष्टः।

    दैवं किं? यस्सुकृतं कः सुकृती? श्लाघ्यते यस्सद्भि:॥ 

48.  saadhubalam kim? Daivam, kah saadhuh? Sarvadaa tushtah

       daivam kim ? yassukritam, kah sukritee? Shlaaghyate yah sadbhih

Q: What is the strength of a saintly person?

A: daivam    

Q: Who is a saadhu?

A: One who is always content and happy.

Q:  What is daivam ?

A:   Good actions of a person (sukritam)

Q:  Who is sukritee (one whose actions are good) ?

A:   One who is praised by good people.

४९. गृहमेधिनश्च मित्रं किं? भार्या, को गृही च? यो यजते।

    को यज्ञो? यः श्रुत्या विहितः श्रेयस्करो नृणां॥  

49.  Grihamedhinashcha mitram kim? Bhaaryaa, ko grihee cha? Yo yajate

       Ko yajno? Yah shrutyaa vihitah shreyaskaro nrinaam

Q: Who is the friend of a householder?

A:  wife

Q: Who is a householder?

A: One who performs yagnas (sacrifices)

Q: What is  yagna?

A: That which is prescribed in the Vedas for the welfare of humanity

५०. कस्य क्रिया हि सफला? यः पुनराचारवान् शिष्टः|

    कः शिष्टो? यो वेदप्रमाणवान् को हतः?क्रियाभ्रष्टः॥

50  kasya kriyaa hi saphalaa?  Yahpunaraachaaravaan shishtah

    kah shishto? Yo vedapramaanavaan, ko hatah? kriyaabhrashtah

Q: Whose kriya ( vedic karmas) bear fruit?

A:  One who is of good conduct and also a  shishta

Q:  Who is a shishta?

A:   One who acknowledges the authority of the Vedas

Q: Who is dead even while living?

A:  One who does not perform the kriyas  enjoined by the Vedas

५१. को धन्यः? संन्यासी, को मान्यः?पण्डितः साधुः।

   कः सेव्यॊ? यो दाता, को दाता? योऽर्थितृप्तिमातनुते॥

51.  ko dhanyah? Sanyaasee, ko maanyah? Panditah saadhuh

      kah sevyo? Yo daataa, ko daataa? Yo’rthitriptimaatanute

Q: Who is a dhanya ? (One who has attained the highest goal of life)?

A:  Sanyaasee (One who has broken the shackles which bind him to the


Q:  Who is a maanya?  (One who commands respect)?

A:   One who is learned and at the same time of a saintly character

Q:  Who is sevya (one who deserves to be served)?

A:  One who gives in charity

Q:  Who is a daataa (giver)  ?

A:   One who satisfies those who beg from him.

५२. किं भाग्यं देहवतां? आरोग्यं, कः फली? कृषिकृत्।

   कस्य न पापं? जपतः, कः पूर्णो? यः प्रजावान् स्यात्

52.  kim bhaagyam dehavataam? Aarogyam, kah phalee? Krishikrit

      kasya na paapam? Japatah, kah poorno? Yah prajaavaan syaat

Q: What is blessing for one who has a body?

 A:  Health (absence of disease)

Q: Who enjoys the fruits?

 A:  One who tills the soil (puts in effort)

Q: Who has no sins?

A:  One who does japa

Q: Who is whole (full)?

A:  One who has children

५३. किं दुष्करं नराणाम्? यन्मनसो निग्रह्स्सततं।

    को ब्रह्मचर्यवान् स्यात्? यश्चास्खलितो ऊर्ध्वरेतश्च॥

53.  kim dushkaram naraanaam? Yanmanaso nigrahah satatam

      ko brahmacharyavaan syaat? Yashchaaskhalito oordhwaretaskah

Q: What is difficult to do for humans?

A:  Keeping the mind under control always

Q: Who is a brahmachaari?

A: One who has sublimated one’s sex energy

५४. का च परदेवता? चिच्छक्तिः, को जगत्भर्ता? सूर्यः।

    सर्वेषां को जीवनहेतुः? स पर्जन्यः॥

54.  kaa cha paradevataa? Chichchhaktih, ko jagatbhartaa?

        Sooryah, sarveshaam ko jeevanahetuh? sa parjanyah

Q: Who is  paradevata ?

A:  The Divine mother, embodiment of pure consciousness

Q: Who supports these worlds?

A:  The Sun

Q: What is the source of living for all?

A:  clouds which give rain.

५५. कः शूरो? यो भीतत्राता, त्राता च कः? स गुरुः।

    को हि जगद्गुरुरुक्तः शंभुः ज्ञानं कुतः? शिवादेव॥

55.  kah shooro? Yo bheetatraataa, traataacha kah? sa guruh

       Ko hi jagatgururuktah? Shambhuh, jnaanam kutah? shivaadeva

Q: Who is valiant?

A:  One who protects the frightened.

Q: Who is the protector?

A: Spiritual teacher

Q: Who is the teacher for the whole world?

A: Lord Shiva

Q: From whom is true knowledge?

A: Only from Lord Shiva

५६. मुक्तिम् लभेत कस्मात्? मुकुन्दभक्तेः, मुकुन्दः कः?।

    यस्तारयेदविद्यां, का चाविद्या? यदात्मनोऽस्फूर्तिः॥

56.  muktim labheta kasmaat? mukundabhakteh, mukundah kah?

     Yastaarayedavidyaam, kaa chaavidyaa? Yadaatmano’sphoortih

Q: From who one gets liberation?

A:  From Mukunda

Q: Who is Mukunda?

A:  He who extricates one from the grip of ignorance (avidyaa )

Q: What is avidyaa?

 A: Forgetting one’s real Self

५७ कस्य न शोको? यः स्यादक्रोधः, किं सुखं तुष्टिः।

   को राजा? रञ्जनकृत्,  कश्च श्वा? नीचसेवको य: स्यात्॥

57. kasya na shoko? Yah syaadakrodhah, kim sukham? Tushtih

ko raajaa? Ranjanakrit, kashcha shwaa? Neechasevako yah syaat

Q: Who is without sorrow?

A:  One who never gets angry

Q:  What is happiness?

A:   Contentment

Q:  Who is king?

A:   One who keeps his subjects happy.

Q: Who is a dog?

A: One who serves a mean person.

५८. को मायी? परमेशः, क इन्द्रजालायते? प्रपञ्चोऽयं।

   कः स्वप्ननिभॊ? जाग्रद्व्यवहारः सत्यमपि किं? ब्रह्म॥

58.  ko maayee? Parameshah, ka indrajaalaayate? Prapancho’yam

        kah swapnanibho? Jaagradvyavahaarah, satyamapi kim? Brahma

Q:  Who is the master of maayaa ?

A:   The Lord of all

Q:  What is indrajaala (the great magic)?

A:  The whole of this universe

Q: What is dream-like?

A: Whatever is happening in the waking state.

Q: What is Truth?

A: Brahman

५९ किं मिथ्या? यद्विद्यानाश्यं, तुच्छं तु? शशविषाणादि।

    का चानिर्वचनीया? माया, किं कल्पितं द्वैतं॥

59. kim mithyaa? Yadwidyaanaashyam, tuchchham tu? shashavishaanaadi

     kaa chaanirvachaneeyaa? maayaa, kim kalpitam? Dwaitam

Q: What is mithyaa  (illusion, non-existent which appears as existent)?

A: That which disappears when true knowledge dawns.

Q: What is tuchchha?

 A: Things like horns of a hare which do not exist at all

Q:  What is indefinable?

 A:  Maayaa 

Q: What is imagined?

 A: Duality

 ६०. किं पारमार्थिकं स्यात्? अद्वैतं चाज्ञता कुतो? अनादिः।

    वपुषश्च पोषकं किं? प्रारब्धं चान्नदायी किं? चायुः 

60.  Kim paaramaarthikam syaat? Adwaitam, chaajnataa kuto? anaadih

       Vapushashcha poshakam kim?  Praarabdham, chaannadaayi kim?


Q: What is the highest goal?

A:  Adwaitam (non-duality)

Q: From whence ignorance?

A: Without beginning

Q: What is nourishment to the body?

A:  praarabdham ( past actions which have started yielding their fruits)

Q: Which provides food (anna)?

A:  Aayuh (years of life one is destined to live)

६१. को  ब्राह्मणैरुपास्यॊ? गायत्र्यर्काग्निगोचरो शंभुः।

    गायत्र्यामादित्ये चाग्नौ शम्भौ च किं नु? तत्तत्वं 

61.  ko braahmanairupaasyo? Gaayatryarkaagnigocharo shambhuh

      gaayatryaamaaditye chaagnau shambhau cha kim nu? Tattatwam

Q: Who is to be worshipped by brahmanas?

 A:  Shambhuh (Lord Shiva) who is manifest in Gaayatri, the Sun and  Agni (the Fire)

Q: What is there in Gaayatri, the Sun, the Fire and Shambhuh ?

A:  Sivatattwa (the Ultimate Reality)

२. प्रत्यक्षदेवता का? माता, पूज्यो गुरुश्च कः? तातः।

    कः सर्वदेवतात्मा? विद्याकर्मान्वितो विप्रः॥

62.  pratyaksha devataa kaa? Maataa, poojyo gurushcha kah? taatah

     Kah sarvadevataatmaa? Vidyaakarmaanwito viprah

Q: Who is the manifest devataa (God)?

A:  Mother

Q:  Who deserves worship and is also guru?

A:   Father

Q:  In whom is manifest all the gods?

A:   Brahmana  in whom there is true knowledge and who performs vedic karmas, without attachnment, as an offering to God.

६३. कश्च कुलक्षयहेतुः? संतापः सज्जनेषु योऽकारि।

    केषाममोघवचनं? ये च सत्यमौनशमशीलाः॥

63.     kashcha kulakshayahetuh? Samtaapah sajjaneshu yo’kaari

       keshaamamoghavachanam? Ye cha punah satyamaunashamasheelaah

Q:  What leads to the fall of a dynasty?

 A:  Such actions as cause mental and physical agony to the good (noble


Q:  Whose words never fail to  be true and effective?

 A:  One who is truthful, who keeps silence ( has control over his speech)  

      and whose mind is tranquil.

  ६४  किं जन्म? विषयसंगः किमुत्तरं जन्म? पुत्रः स्यात्।

  कोऽपरिहार्यॊ? मृत्युः कुत्र पदं विन्यसेच्च? दृक्पूते॥

64.        kim janma? Vishaya sangah, kimuttaram janma? Putrah syaat

       ko’parihaaryo? Mrityuh, kutra padam vinyasechcha? Drikpoote

Q: What is the cause of birth?

A:  Attachment to sensual pleasures

Q: What is after-birth?

A:  After-birth is the son

Q: What cannot be avoided?

A:  Death.


Q: Where should one place one’s foot?

A:  Where one’s eyes tell  that the place is clean.

६५ पात्रं किमन्नदाने? क्षुधितं, कोऽर्च्योहि? भगवदवताराः।

      कश्च भगवान्? महेशः शंकरनारायणात्मैकः॥

65.  paatram kimannadaane? Kshudhitam, ko’rchyo hi? Bhagavadavataarah

kashcha bhagavaan? Maheshah shankaranaaraayanaatmaikah

Q: Who is the fit person to receive alms?

A:  One who is hungry.

Q: Who is to be worshipped?

A:  The incarnations of the Lord (God, Bhagavaan)

Q: Who is Bhagavaan?

A: The one Spreme Lord in whom Shankara and Naraayana are united.

६६. फलमपि भगवत्भक्तेः किं? तल्लोकसाक्षात्वं।

   मोक्षश्च को? ह्यविद्यास्तमयः कः सर्ववेदभूः अथचॊं॥

66.  phalamapi bhagavat bhakteh kim? Tallokasaakshaatwam

Mokshashcha ko? Hyavidyaastamayah, kah sarvavedabhooh? Atha chom

Q: what is the fruit of devotion to God?

A: Attaining  the abode of the Lord

Q: What is moksha (liberation)?

A:  Liberation from ignorance (the end of avidya)

Q: What is the source of all the Vedas

A:  The syllable ‘OM’

६७  इत्येषा कण्ठस्था प्रश्नोत्तररत्नमालिका येषां।

    ते मुक्ताभरणा इव विमलाश्चाभान्ति सत्समाजेषु॥

67. ityeshaa kanthasthaa prashnottararatnamaalikaa yeshaam

     te muktaabharanaa iva vimalaashchaabhaanti satsamaajeshu

One who wears around his neck this  prashnottararatnamaalikaa  as a necklace of pearls  (meaning one who commits this to memory) will shine in the assembly of noble soles.